Advertisement

Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 193–199 | Cite as

Electroencephalographic and autonomic responses to trichloroethylene inhalation in freely moving rats

  • Heihachiro Arito
  • Masaya Takahashi
  • Midori Sotoyama
  • Hiroshi Tsuruta
  • Teruyuki Ishikawa
Original Investigations

Abstract

Effects of trichloroethylene (TRI) on the central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic functions were examined by means of continuous polygraphic measurements of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in electrode-implanted and freely moving rats, while they were exposed via inhalation to TRI vapor of 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm for 8 h/day or 6000 ppm for 4 h/day on 3 consecutive days. The exposures to 3000 and 6000 ppm produced abnormal EEG activity and incapacitation of postural maintenance during the exposure period, while the post-exposure period was characterized by decreased waking (W) time, lowered heart rate (HR) and increased numbers of bradyarrhythmic episodes after recovery from anesthesia. The exposure to 1000 ppm decreased W time without the appearance of anesthesia. The exposure to 300 ppm did not produce any observable effects except the lowered HR, which occurred during the post-exposure period. The relationships between internal doses of TRI and its metabolites and these TRI-induced pathophysiological responses were determined by blood and brain analyses of TRI, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid in the TRI-exposed rats. Recordings of respiratory chest wall movement revealed that the number of TRI-induced bradyarrhythmias accompanying apnea during paradoxical sleep (PS) increased significantly after cessation of exposure to 6000 ppm TRI. This suggests that TRI-induced hypoxemia due to apnea during PS triggers bradyarrhythmogenesis through increased cardiac vagal efferent tone.

Key words

Trichloroethylene Sleep-wakefulness Heart rate Bradyarrhythmia Sleep apnea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alford N, Fletcher FC, Nickeson D (1986) Acute oxygen in patients with sleep apnea and COPD. Chest 89: 30–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arito H, Tsuruta H, Oguri M (1988) Changes in sleep and wakefulness following single and repeated exposures to toluene vapor in rats. Arch Toxicol 62: 76–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arito H, Uchiyama I, Arakawa H, Yokoyama E (1990) Ozone-induced bradycardia and arrhythmia and their relation to sleep-wakefulness in rats. Toxicol Lett 52: 169–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachman DS (1972) A technique for vagal stimulation in chronic experiments. J Appl Physiol 33: 402–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachman DS (1973) Prolonged apnea, vagal overactivity, and sudden infant death. Pediatrics 51: 755–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bardodej JZ, Vyskocil J (1955) The problem of trichloroethylene in occupational medicine. AMA Arch Indust Health 13: 581–592Google Scholar
  7. Brodsky M, Wu D, Denes P, Kanakis C, Rosen KM (1977) Arrhythmias documented by 24 hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in 50 male medical students without apparent heart disease. Am J Cardiol 39: 390–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Flowers NC, Horan LG (1972) Nonanoxic aerosol arrhythmias. JAMA 219: 33–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Guilleminault C, Cummiskey J, Motta J (1980) Chronic obstructive airflow disease and sleep studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 122: 397–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Guilleminault C, Connolly SJ, Winkle RA (1983) Cardiac arrhythmia and conduction disturbances during sleep in 400 patients with sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Cardiol 52: 490–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. James WRL (1963) Fatal addiction to trichloroethylene. J Indust Med 20: 47–49Google Scholar
  12. Kawakami T, Takano T, Araki R (1988) Synergistic interaction of triand tetra-chloroethylene, hypoxia, and ethanol on the atrioventricular conduction of the perfused rat heart. Indust Health 26: 25–33Google Scholar
  13. Kleinfeld M, Tabershaw IR (1954) Trichloroethylene toxicity. Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 10: 134–141Google Scholar
  14. Konietzko H, Elster I (1973) Toxic effects on heart of trichloroethylene. Arch Toxicol 31: 93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kryger M, Quesney LF, Holder D, Gloor P, MacLeod P (1974) The sleep deprivation syndrome of obese patients. A problem of periodic nocturnal upper airway obstruction. Am J Med 56: 531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mikiskova H, Mikiska A (1966) Trichloroethanol in trichloroethylene poisoning. Br J Indust Med 23: 116–125Google Scholar
  17. Miller WP (1982) Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances in the sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Med 73: 317–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Moore TO, Eisner R, Lin YC, Lally DA, Hong SK (1973) Effects of alveolar PO2 and PCO2 on apneic bradycardia in man. J Appl Physiol 34: 795–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nakajima T, Okino T, Kurasawa K, Murayama N, Sato A (1987) Chemical burns, bradycardia, extrasystolic arrhythmia, and unconsciousness caused by accidental trichloroethylene exposure (in Japanese). Jpn J Ind Health 29: 72–73Google Scholar
  20. Nakamura K (1985) Mortality patterns among cleaning workers. Jpn J Ind Health 27: 24–37Google Scholar
  21. Nomiyama K (1978) Three clinical cases of trichloroethylene-exposed workers with the central nervous system impairment (in Japanese). Jpn J Ind Health 20: 526Google Scholar
  22. Okuma T, Shimazono Y, Narabayashi H (1957) Cortical and subcortical electrograms in anesthesia and anoxia in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 9: 609–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Otsuka K, Sato T, Saito H, Kaba H, Otsuka K, Seto K, Ogura H, Ozawa T (1985) Circadian rhythm of cardiac bradyarrhythmia episodes in rats. Chronobiologia 12: 11–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Otsuka K, Ikari M, Ichimaru Y, Saito H, Kawakami T, Otsuka K, Kaba H, Seto K (1986) Experimental study on the relationship between cardiac arrhythmias and sleep states by ambulatory ECG-EEG monitoring. Clin Cardiol 9: 305–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Reihardt CF, Mullin LS, Maxifield ME (1973) Epinephrine-induced cardiac arrhythmia potential of some common industrial solvents. J Occup Med 15: 953–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Seppäläinen AM, Antti-Poika M (1983) Time course of electrophysiological findings for patients with solvent poisoning. Scand J Work Environ Health 9: 15–24Google Scholar
  27. Stoohs R, Guilleminault C (1992) Cardiovascular changes associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Appl Physiol 72: 583–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Taylor GJ, Harris WS (1970) Cardiac toxicity of aerosol propellants. JAMA 214: 81–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Tilkian AG, Guillenault C, Schroeder JS, Lehrman KL, Simmons FB, Dement WC (1977) Sleep-induced apnea syndrome. Am J Med 63: 348–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vernon RJ, Ferguson RK (1969) Effects of trichloroethylene on visualmotor performance. Arch Environ Health 18: 894–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Waters EM, Gerstner HB, Huff JE (1977) Trichloroethylene. I. An overview. J Toxicol Environ Health 2: 671–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. White JF, Carlson GP (1979) Influence of alterations in drug metabolism and epinephrine-induced cardiac arrhythmias in animals exposed to trichloroethylene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 47: 515–527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Winer BJ (1971) Statistical principles in experimental design, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Zwillich C, Devlin T, White D, Douglas N, Weil J, Martin R (1982) Bradycardia during sleep apnea. J Clin Invest 69: 1286–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heihachiro Arito
    • 1
  • Masaya Takahashi
    • 1
  • Midori Sotoyama
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Tsuruta
    • 1
  • Teruyuki Ishikawa
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Industrial HealthKawasakiJapan
  2. 2.School of Hygienic SciencesKitasato UniversitySagamihara-shiJapan

Personalised recommendations