Urinary excretion of acetylcyanamide in rat and human after oral and dermal application of hydrogen cyanamide (H2NCN)
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The main urinary metabolite of hydrogen cyanamide (syn.: cyanamide) in rat and man is acetylcyanamide (syn.: N-acetylcyanamide). An analytical method was developed to determine acetylcyanamide in the urine with a limit of quantification of <10 μg/l (mean recovery 96.1 % using spikes of 20 μg/l; relative standard deviation <4%). This methodology is based upon ion chromatography using column-switch techniques and UV detection. It could be demonstrated that in rats an average of 45.6% of oral applied cyanamide (10 mg/kg) was excreted in the urine as acetylcyanamide. In male human volunteers a mean of 40% of oral administered cyanamide (mean dose 0.25 mg/kg body weight) was excreted via the urine as acetylcyanamide. The same group of volunteers participated in a skin absorption study with dermal application of the above cyanamide dose onto a skin surface area of 32 cm2. Within an application period of 6 h an average cyanamide quantity of 2.3 mg was available for skin absorption. A mean portion of 7.7% of this quantity was found as acetylcyanamide in the urine of the participants. Findings from literature state that cyanamide is metabolized in vitro to cyanide. According to examinations performed in vivo, however, such a metabolic pathway seems to be irrelevant for man. In comparison with the control values there was no significant increase of both the cyanide concentrations in the blood and the thiocyanate concentrations in the urine of the above volunteers after the described oral cyanamide administration.
Key wordsHydrogen cyanamide Rat Human Metabolism Urinary excretion Acetylcyanamide
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