Gastric and cardiovascular effects of histamine in the dog
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The H-2 receptor stimulation of gastric acid secretion and of heart rate by histamine, a mixed H-1–H-2 agonist, given in 45-min successive step doses 2–150 μg base/kg.h and 4(Me)histamine, (4(Me)H), 1.4 to 210 μg base/kg.h, a specific H-2 agonist, in five conscious gastric fistula dogs showed no difference between the agonists in ED50s or in maximal responses. The ED50 for acid was lower (15–16 μg/kg.h) than for cardiac chronotropism (25 to 27 μg/kg.h). Both effects were competitively antagonized by the H-2 antagonist cimetidine, 0.5 to 1 mg/kg.h. Background infusions of diphenhydramine, 2 mg/kg.h, raised the maximum heart rate increase caused by histamine from +108 to +149 beats/min (p<0.05) but not that of 4(Me)H; acid outputs were not augmented. Diphenhydramine 2 mg/kg.h alone caused no significant change in heart rate or blood pressure. Histamine reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 48 mmHg and with diphenhydramine background by 61 mmHg (p<0.05). 4(Me)H at a top dose of 210 μg base/kg.h reduced SBP by 81 mmHg (p<0.05). To test whether the effects of added diphenhydramine could be interpreted as an H-1 receptor effect of histamine, the H-1 agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (PEA) was given alone (2–150 μg/kg.h in 45-min steps) or as a 100 μg/kg bolus during the infusion of 4(Me)H 50 μg/kg.h. There was no effect of PEA on gastric acid, heart rate or blood pressure. Even though diphenhydramine augments the effect of histamine on heart rate and blood pressure, the lack of PEA effect would indicate that there is not a direct H-1 receptor mediated effect on gastric acid, heart rate or systolic blood pressure in the conscious dog. This contrasts with published data obtained in anesthetized animals. After a single dose of 4(Me)H, 50 μg/kg.h had been infused i.v. for 45 min, acid output had reached 70% of the maximum seen at 90 min, heart rate had increased by 65% of its maximum response but SBP had not yet changed. Cimetidine blocked 4(Me)H-induced hypotension completely but blocked the heart rate increase only partially and competitively. We conclude that in the intact animal there is evidence for a direct H-2 mediated stimulation of heart rate in the conscious dog with kinetics similar to the H-2 stimulation of gastric acid secretion.
KeywordsSystolic Blood Pressure Histamine Cimetidine Gastric Acid Secretion Acid Output
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