Vegetatio

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 271–312 | Cite as

Observations on Savanna vegetation-types in the Guianas

  • J. van Donselaar
Article

Summary

The vegetation was studied of a number of savannas in northern and southern Surinam, and in French Guiana. The results are compared in particular with the vegetation classification proposed earlier for northern Surinam, and with some records from the northern Rupununi Savanna, Guyana (Van Donselaar 1965).

The savannas studied near Brownsweg (northern Surinam) have vegetation types that correspond completely with those of some other savannas of the same geological-pedological type more to the North, as described before. New is the finding of a type of scrub bordering the savanna, being the scrub equivalent of a type of bushes described earlier as theMarlierea type.

On the top and the slopes of the Blauwe Berg near Berg en Dal (northern Surinam) an anthropogenic savanna has developed. Two new vegetation types are recorded here that belong to the alliance Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion. At the foot of the hill a flat savanna supports a vegetation that gives the impression of being of recent origin and unbalanced.

It appears possible to apply the existing classification to the communities found on savannas near Cayenne (French Guiana). In this area the conspicuousByrsonima verbascifolia (var.villosa fo.spathulata) occurs in several undescribed vegetation types that belong to various entities. A xerophilous and a hygrophilous community ofByrsonima verbascifolia are distinguished, belonging to the Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion and the Bulbostylidion lanatae, respectively.

On the Sipaliwini Savanna in southern Surinam most vegetation types do not fit into one of the existing alliances. However, if new alliances would be described, it should be possible to include them into the existing orders. There probably is an alliance, called here “communities ofTrachypogon plumosus andBulbostylis spadicea”, that might be regarded as the southern counterpart of the Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion in the order Trachypogonetalia plumosi, and a supposed alliance with muchRhynchospora graminea andR. globosa might have the same position with regard to the Imperato-Mesosetion in the order Paspaletalia pulchelli. Among the communities that might be included in the alliance Axonopodion chrysitidis there is one occurring on sandy soil without a hog-wallow structure at the surface. Floristically it has connections with the Paspaletalia pulchelli but it also has many characteristic species of its own. Whether this community has to be placed in a distinct alliance will have to depend on the results of further investigations in this area. Anyhow, more data are needed for the drafting of a complete picture of the rich and interesting Sipaliwini Savanna.

On a savanna south-west of the airstrip “Sipaliwini” (southern Surinam) the vegetation consists mainly of communities belonging to the Bulbostylidion lanatae.

Summarizing the above-mentioned results, one may say that a number of communities not studied before are added to the picture of the savanna vegetation of the Guianas. It proved possible to integrate these communities without much difficulty in the classification presented earlier that so far has functioned as a practical framework.

Keywords

Vegetation Type Como Sich Eine Savanna Vegetation Cayenne 

Beobachtungen an Savannen vegetationstypen in den Guayanas

Zusammenfassung

Die Vegetation einiger Savannen in Nordsurinam, Südsurinam und Französisch-Guayana wurde untersucht. Die Ergebnisse werden besonders verglichen mit einer schon früher vorgeschlagenen Vegetationsklassifikation und mit einigen Aufnahmen der nördlichen Rupununisavanne in Guayana, dem ehemahligen Britisch-Guayana (Van Donselaar 1965).

Die bei Brownsweg (Nordsurinam) untersuchten Savannen haben Vegetationstypen, die denjenigen anderer, schon früher bearbeiteter, mehr nördlich gelegener Savannen desselben geologisch-pädologischen Typs ganz ähnlich sind. Es wurde ein neuer, die offenen Savannen begrenzender Typ von Gestrüpp gefunden. Er ist als Gestrüppäquivalent eines Buschtyps, der früher alsMarlierea-typ beschrieben worden ist, zu betrachten.

Auf dem Gipfel und den Hängen des Blauen Berges bei Berg en Dal (Nordsurinam) hat sich eine anthropogene Savanne entwickelt. Zwei neue Vegetationstypen wurden hier angetroffen, beide dem Verband Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion angehörend. Eine flache Savanne am Fuß des Berges trägt eine Vegetation, die rezent entstanden und noch nicht ausgeglichen zu sein scheint.

Es ergibt sich, daß die vorhandene Klassifikation auch auf die Pflanzengesellschaften einiger Savannen bei Cayenne (Französisch-Guayana) zutrifft. In dieser Gegend findet sich die auffälligeByrsonima verbascifolia (var.villosa fo.spathulata) in mehreren unbeschriebenen Vegetationstypen, die verschiedenen Einheiten angehören. Es wurde eine xerophile und eine hygrophile Gesellschaft vonByrsonima verbascifolia unterschieden, die den Verbänden Rhynchospora-Trachypogonion bezw. Bulbostylidion lanatae zugeteilt werden können.

Die meisten Vegetationstypen der Sipaliwinisavanne (Südsurinam) passen nicht in einen der beschriebenen Verbände. Wenn aber neue Verbände dafür beschrieben würden, so könnten diese in den bestehenden Ordnungen untergebracht werden. Es ist wohl ein Verband zu unterscheiden, hier „Gesellschaften vonTrachypogon plumosus undBulbostylis spadicea” genannt, der als ein südliches Gegenstück des nördlichen Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion-Verbandes in der Ordnung Trachypogonetalia plumosi zu betrachten wäre, und vermutlich steht ein Verband mit vielRhynchospora graminea undR. globosa in demselben Verhältnis zum Imperato-Mesosetion-Verband in der Ordnung Paspaletalia pulchelli. Unter den Gesellschaften, die dem Verband Axonopodion chrysitidis zuzurechnen sind, gibt es eine auf sandigem Boden ohne Hügel-und-Schlenken-Struktur. Sie hat floristische Beziehungen zu den Paspaletalia pulchelli, aber hat auch manche eigene Kennarten. Die Entscheidung, ob diese Gesellschaft in einem neuen Verband unterzubringen ist, muß von weiteren Untersuchungsergebnissen abhängig gemacht werden. Überhaupt ist noch viel weitere Arbeit erforderlich, bevor das Bild der Vegetation der reichen und interessanten Sipaliwinisavanne vollständig ist.

Die Vegetation einer Savanne südwestlich des Flugplatzes „Sipaliwini” (Südsurinam) besteht hauptsächlich aus Gesellschaften des Verbandes Bulbostylidion lanatae.

Als Zusammenfassung der obenerwähnten Ergebnisse kann man sagen, daß eine Anzahl von bisher nicht bekannten Gesellschaften dem Gesammtbild der Savannenvegetation der Guayanas hinzugefügt worden ist. Es hat sich gezeigt, daß diese Gesellschaften ohne viel Mühe in die früher veröffentlichte Klassifikation eingefügt werden können, so daß diese als ein praktisches Ramenwerk brauchbar bleibt.

Observaçoes sôbre vegetaçoes de savana nas Guianas

Resumo

A vegetação foi estudada em várias savanas ao norte e sul de Suriname, e na Guiana Francêsa. Os resultados foram comparados, em particular, com a classificação de tipos de vegetação obtida antes no norte de Suriname e com alguns dados da parte norte da Savana Rupununi, Guiana Inglesa, agora „Guyana” (Van Donselaar 1965).

As savanas estudadas perto de Brownsweg (norte do Suriname) possuem tipos de vegetação que correspondem completamente com aqueles de outras savanas do mesmo tipo geológico-pedológico mais ao norte, já descritos antes. Foi encontrada aí uma faixa arbustiva bordejando a savana que é nova e, equivalente ao tipo de capões descrito anteriormente como o tipo deMalierea.

No topo e nas vertentes do Blauwe Berg perto de Berg en Dal (norte do Suriname) uma savana antropogênica encontra-se desenvolvida aí. Dois tipos novos de vegetação são aí apontados que pertencem a aliança Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion. No sopé de colina encontra-se uma savana plana que apresenta uma vegetação dando a impressão se sêr de origem recente e em desequilíbrio.

Parece sêr possível aplicar a classificação existente das comunidades encontradas nas savanas próximas à Cayenne (Guiana Francêsa). Nessa área a conspícuaByrsonima verbascifolia (var.villosa fo.spathulata) ocorre em vários tipos vegetais não descritos que pertencem a entidades diversas. Uma comunidade xerófila e uma higrófila deByrsonima verbascifolia são definidas, pertencendo a primeira ao Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonione, a segunda ao Bulbostylidon lanatae.

Na Savana Sipaliwini ao sul de Suriname a maioria dos tipos de vegetação não se acomodam a nenhuma das alianças existentes. Entretanto, se novas alianças fossem criadas, seria possível incluilas nas ordens existentes. É provàvelmente uma aliança chamada aquí „comunidades deTrachypogon plumosus eBulbostylis spadicea” que pudesse sêr considerada como correspondente sulino do Rhynchosporo-Trachypogonion na ordem Trachypogonetalia plumosi, e uma aliança com muitaRhynchospora graminea eR. globosa que pudesse estar na mesma situação em relação ao Imperato-Mesosetion da ordem Paspaletalia pulchelli. Entre as comunidades possíveis de sêr incluidas na aliança Axonopodion chrysitidis, é uma que se encontra em solo arenoso, mas sem a superfície com caneluras reticuladas que é chamada „hogwallowed” em inglês e „kaw-foetoe” no Suriname. Além das conecções florísticas com a Paspaletalia pulchelli tem muitas espécies características próprias. Se esta comunidade tem que sêr localizada numa aliança separada, dependerá dos resultados de investigações futuras nesta área. Em tôdo caso mais dados são necessários para a delineação dum desenho completo da rica e interessante Savana Sipaliwini.

Na savana SW do compo d'aterrisagem „Sipaliwini” (sul do Suriname) a vegetação consiste, a maioria, de comunidades de Bulbostylidion lanatae.

Reunindo os resultados acima mencionados, podemos dizer que um número de comunidades não estudados antes são acrescentados à pintura da vegetação das savanas das Guianas. Também evidenciou-se sêr possível integrar estas comunidades sem muitas dificuldades não classificação apresentada antes, que até agora funciona como moldura prática.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrade Lima, D. de, 1959 — Viagem aos Campos de Monte Alegre, Pará.Bol. Técn. Inst. Agron. Norte 36: 99–149.Google Scholar
  2. Andrade Lima, D. de, 1966 — Ilhas de cerrado na Amazônia. Paper presented to the ‘Symposium on the biota of the Amazon basin’ of ‘The Association for Tropical Biology, Inc.’, Belém (Pará, Brazil), June 1966. (2 pp., mimeogr.).Google Scholar
  3. Atlas do Brasil, 2nd ed., 1959. Ed. Conselho Nacional de Geografia, Lucas, D. F.Google Scholar
  4. Benoist, R. 1925 — La végétation de la Guyane française II — Les savanes.Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72, ser. 5, 1: 1066–1076.Google Scholar
  5. Bouillenne, R. 1930 — Un voyage botanique dans le Bas-Amazone. Une mission biol. belge au Brésil (1922–23) 2.Arch. Inst. Bot. Univ. Liége 8. (185 pp.)Google Scholar
  6. Boye, M. 1959 — Données nouvelles sur les formations sédimentaires cotières de la Guyane française, I: Le Quarternaire et le probléme des sables blancs détritiques.Comm. 5th Intergui. Geol. Conf., Georgetown 1959. (34 pp., mimeogr.)Google Scholar
  7. Chermont de Miranda, V. 1907 — Os campos de Marajó e sua flora.Bol. Mus. Goeldi 5, 1: 96–151.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, A. &Eyk, J.J. van der, 1953 — Klassificatie en ontstaan van savannen in Suriname. Summary in English.Geol. Mijnbouw ser. 2, 15: 202–214.Google Scholar
  9. Donselaar, J. van, 1965 — An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas. The Veg. of Sur. 4.Wentia 14.Med. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht 211. (163 pp.).Google Scholar
  10. Donselaar, R. van, 1968 — Phytogeographic notes on the savanna flora of southern Surinam (South America).Acta Bot. Neerl. 17: 393–404.Med. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht 306.Google Scholar
  11. Donselaar-ten Bokkel Huinink, W. A. E. van, 1966 — Structure, root systems and periodicity of savanna plants and vegetations in northern Surinam. The Veg. of Sur. 5.Wentia 17.Med. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht 256. (162 pp.).Google Scholar
  12. Dost, H. 1962 — Verslag van een bodemverkenning op de Sipaliwini-savanne, 19–30 juli 1962.Rep. Pedol. Serv., Paramaribo. (32 pp., mimeogr.).Google Scholar
  13. Dost, H. 1963 — Verslag van een oriëntatiereis naar Frans Guyana van 16 t/m 21 december 1963.Rep. Pedol. Serv., Paramaribo. (29 pp., mimeogr.).Google Scholar
  14. Ducke, A. 1907 — Voyage aux „campos” de l'Ariramba.La Géographie 16: 19–26.Google Scholar
  15. Ducke, A. 1909 — Explorations dans le nord de l'éta Pará. Ibid. 20: 99–110.Google Scholar
  16. Ducke, A. &Black, G. A. 1953 — Phytogeographic notes on the Brazilian Amazon.An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 25: 1–46.Google Scholar
  17. Eden, M. J. 1964 — The savanna ecosystem — Northern Rupununi, British Guiana. McGill Un. (Montreal), Savanna res. ser. 1. (216 pp.).Google Scholar
  18. Egler, W. A. 1960 — Contribuções ao conhecimento dos campos da Amazônia. I — Os campos do Ariramba.Bol. Mus. Paraense E. Goeldi ser. 2, Bot. 4 (36 pp.).Google Scholar
  19. Fanshawe, D. B. 1952 — The vegetation of British Guiana. A preliminary review.Imp. For. Inst. (Oxford) Paper 29. (96 pp.).Google Scholar
  20. Goodland, R. J. A. 1965 — On termitaria in a savanna ecosystem.Canad. J. Zool. 43: 641–650.Google Scholar
  21. Goodland, R. J. A. 1966 — On the savanna vegetation of Calabozo, Venezuela, and Rupununi, British Guiana.Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 24 (110): 341–359.Google Scholar
  22. Heyligers, P. C. 1963 — Vegetation and soil of a white-sand savanna in Suriname. The Veg. of Sur. 3.Verhand. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. afd. Natuurk. ser. 2, 54 (3).Med. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht 191. (148 pp.).Google Scholar
  23. Hills, Th. L. 1961 — The interior of British Guiana and the myth of El Dorado.Canad. Geogr. 5: 30–43. McGill Un. (Montreal), Savanna res. ser. 3 (1965).Google Scholar
  24. Hills, Th. L. 1964 — McGill Un. (Montreal), Savanna res. proj., Progress report 1964. (26 pp.).Google Scholar
  25. Hills, Th. L. 1965 — Savannas: a review of a major research problem in tropical geography.Canad. Geogr. 9: 216–228. McGill Un. (Montreal), Sav. res. ser. 3 (1965).Google Scholar
  26. Hoock, J. 1960 — The reclamation of dry savannas in French Guiana.Nouvelles de Guyane 10.The Caribbean 14: 82–83.Google Scholar
  27. Huber, J. 1908 — Materiães para a flora amazônica, 7.Bol. Mus. Goeldi 5, 2: 294–436.Google Scholar
  28. Kooten, C. van, 1954 — Eerste onderzoek op diamant, Rosebel-Sabanpassie.Med. Geol. Mijnb. Dienst Suriname 11. (63 pp.).Google Scholar
  29. Lanjouw, J. 1936 — Studies on the vegetation of the Suriname savannahs and swamps.Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 46: 823–851.Med. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht 33.Google Scholar
  30. Lanjouw, J. 1954 — The vegetation and the origin of the Suriname savannas.Rapp. et Comm. 8me Congr. Int. Bot. Paris, Sect. 7 et 8: 45–48.Google Scholar
  31. Lavaux, A. de, ±1750 — Algemeene kaart van de Colonie of Provintie van Suriname. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  32. Loxton, R. F., Rutherford, G. K. & Spector, J. 1958 — British Guiana. The Rupununi Savannas. Soil and Land-use surveys nr. 2 of theRegion. Res. Centre Br. Caribb. Imp. Coll. Trop. Agr., Trinidad, B.W.I. (33 pp.).Google Scholar
  33. Lynden, A. J. H. van, 1939 — Op zoek naar Suriname's Zuidgrens.Tijdschr. Kon. Ned. Aardr. Gen. 56: 1–90.Google Scholar
  34. Myers, J. G. 1936 — Savannah and forest vegetation of the interior Guiana plateau.J. Ecol. 24: 162–184.Google Scholar
  35. Schomburgk, R. 1947–48 — Reisen in Britisch-Guiana in den Jahren 1840–1844. I—III. Leipzig,J. J. Weber. Translation byW. E. Roth: Travels in British Guiana. Georgetown, “Daily Chronicle” Office (1922).Google Scholar
  36. Stark, J., Rutherford, G. K., Spector, J. & Jones, T. A. 1959 — British Guiana. 1) The Rupununi Savannas (cont.). Etc. Soil and Land-use surveys nr. 6 of theRegion. Res. Centre Br. Caribb. Imp. Coll. Trop. Agr., Trinidad, B.W.I. (24 pp.).Google Scholar
  37. Takeuchi, M. 1960a — The structure of the Amazonian vegetation I — Savanna in northern Amazon.J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo Sect. 3, 7: 523–533.Google Scholar
  38. Takeuchi, M. 1960b — A estrutura de vegetação na Amazônia II — As savanas do norte da Amazônia. Summary in English.Bol. Mus. Paraense E. Goeldi ser. 2, Bot. 7. (14 pp.).Google Scholar
  39. Voets, B. A. D. 1959 — Weerkundig overzicht over het jaar 1959.Surin. Landbouw 7: 151–163.Google Scholar
  40. Zonneveld, J. I. S. 1967 — Enkele luchtfoto's van de Sipaliwini-Savanne in Zuid Suriname. Summary: Airphoto's of the Sipaliwini-Savannah (S. Suriname).Kon. Ned. Aardr. Gen., Geogr. Tijdschr. N.S. 1: 286–298.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk N.V. Publishers 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. van Donselaar
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Systematic BotanyState UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations