Chlamydial infections of the heart

  • M. Odeh
  • A. Oliven


Chlamydiae are common human pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. Chlamydial infections involving the heart have been described in numerous previous reports. These organisms are documented to cause endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis. Furthermore,Chlamydia pneumoniae, the recently discovered respiratory pathogen, has also been implicated in coronary artery disease. For the first time the literature on involvement of the heart in chlamydial infections is reviewed. Information on the discovery ofChlamydia species is also included and the problem of the species determination ofChlamydia in interpretation of the older literature is mentioned.


Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Internal Medicine Infectious Disease Broad Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Schachter J Chlamydial infections. Western Journal of Medicine 1990, 153: 523–534.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stamm WE, Holmes KK Chlamydial infections. In: Wilson JD, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Root RK (ed): Harrison's principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991, p. 764–772.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schaffner W Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis). In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (ed): Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1990, p. 1440–1443.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meyer KF The ecology of psittacosis and ornithosis. Medicine 1942, 21: 175–206.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ostler HB, Schachter J, Dawson C Acute follicular conjunctivitis of epizootic origin — feline pneumonitis. Archives of Ophthalmology 1969, 82: 587–591.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Regan RJ, Dathan JRE, Treharre JD Infective endocarditis with glomerulonephritis associated with catChlamydia (Chlamydia psittaci) infection. British Heart Journal 1979, 42: 349–352.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wong SY, Gray ES, Buxton D, Finlayson J, Johnson FW Acute placentitis and spontaneous abortion caused byChlamydia psittaci of sheep origin: a histological and ultrastructural study. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1985, 38: 707–711.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowie WR, Holmes KK Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma, perinatal infections, lymphogranuloma venereum, and other genital infection). In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (ed): Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1990, p. 1426–1440.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tang FF, Change HL, Huang YT, Wang KC Trachoma virus in chick embryo. National Medical Journal of China 1957, 43: 81–87.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gordon FB, Quan AL Isolation of the trachoma agent in cell culture. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1965, 118: 354–359.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang SP, Grayston JT Immunologic relationship between genital TRIC, lymphogranuloma venereum, and related organisms in a new microtiter indirect immunofluorescence tests. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1970, 70: 367–374.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang SP, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK, Wagner G, Grayston JT Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology 1980, 138: 1034–1038.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stamm WE, Wagner KF, Amsel R, Alexander ER, Turck M, Counts GW, Holmes KK Causes of the acute uretheral syndrome in women. New England Journal of Medicine 1980, 303: 409–415.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Myhre EB, Mardh PA Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a patient with meningoencephalitis. New England Journal of Medicine 1981, 304: 910.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Komaroff AL, Aronson MD, Schachter J Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1981, 245: 1319–1322.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tack KJ, Peterson PK, Rasp FL, Hanto D, O'Leary M, Simmons RL, Sabath LD Isolation ofChlamydia trachomatis from the lower respiratory tract of adults. Lancet 1980, i: 116–120.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Komaroff AL, Branch WT, Aronson MD, Schachter J Chlamydia pharyngitis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1989, 111: 537–538.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Black CM, Johnson JE, Farshy CE, Brown TM, Berdal BP Antigenic variation among strains ofChlamydia pneumoniae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1991, 29: 1312–1316.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Armstrong JH, Zacarias F, Rein MF Ophthalmia neonatorum: a chart review. Pediatrics 1976, 57: 884–892.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alexander ER, Harrison HA Role ofChlamydia trachomatis in perinatal infection. Reviews in Infectious Diseases 1983, 5: 713–719.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arth C, Von Schmidt B, Grossman M, Schachter J Chlamydia pneumonitis. Journal of Pediatrics 1978, 93: 447–449.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grayston JT Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR. Chest 1989, 95: 664–669.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuo CC, Chen HH, Wang SP, Grayston JT Identification of a new group ofChlamydia psittaci strains called TWAR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1986, 24: 1034–1037.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chi EY, Kuo CC, Grayston JT Unique ultrastructure in the elementary body ofChlamydia sp. strain TWAR. Journal of Bacteriology 1987, 169: 3757–3763.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Campbell LA, Kuo CC, Grayston JT Characterization of the newChlamydia agent, TWAR, as a unique organism by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA: DNA hybridization. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1987, 25: 1911–1916.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kuo CC, Chi EY, Grayston JT Ultrastructural study of entry ofChlamydia TWAR into HeLa cells. Infection and Immunity 1988, 56: 1668–1672.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cox RL, Kuo CC, Grayston JT, Campbell LA Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness ofChlamydia sp. strain TWAR toChlamydia trachomatis andChlamydia psittaci. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1988, 38: 265–268.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grayston JT, Kuo CC, Wang SP, Altman J A newChlamydia psittaci strain called TWAR from acute respiratory tract infections. New England Journal of Medicine 1986, 315: 161–168.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grayston JT, Campbell LA, Kuo CC, Mordhorst CH, Saikku P, Thom DH, Wang SP A new respiratory tract pathogen:Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1990, 161: 618–625.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grayston JT, Diwan VK, Cooney M, Wang SP Community-and hospital-acquired pneumonia associated withChlamydia TWAR infection demonstrated serologically. Archives of Internal Medicine 1989, 149: 169–173.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grayston JT Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR pneumonia. Annual Review of Medicine 1992, 43: 317–323.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Tenkanen L, Linnanmaki E, Ekman MR, Manninen V, Manttari M, Frick MH, Huttunen JK ChronicChlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1992, 116: 273–278.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brauu AL, Haukenes G, Aasen S, Grayston T, Wang SP, Klausen OG, Myrmel H, Hasseltvedt V Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in Norway 1981–87 earlier diagnosed as ornithosis. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1992, 23: 299–304.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eryden A, Kihlstrom E, Maller R, Persson K, Romanus V, Anschn S A clinical and epidemiological study of “ornithosis” caused byChlamydia psittaci andChlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR). Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1989, 21: 681–691.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Greaves AB, Taggart SR Serology, Frei reaction, and epidemiology of lymphogranuloma venereum. American Journal of Syphilis 1953, 37: 273–278.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Birkhead JS, Apostolov K Endocarditis caused by a psittacosis agent. British Heart Journal 1974, 36: 728–731.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sutton GC, Morrissey RA, Tobin JR, Anderson TO Pericardial and myocardial disease associated with serological evidence of infection by agents of the psittacosis/lymphogranuloma venereum group(Chlamydiaceae). Circulation 1967, 36: 830–838.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hutchison R, Rowlands RA, Simpson SL A study of psittacosis. British Medical Journal 1930, 1: 633–637.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sheldon WH, Wall MJ, Slade JD, Heyman A Lymphogranuloma venereum in a patient with mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pericarditis. Archives of Internal Medicine 1948, 82: 410–415.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Polayes SH, Lederer M Psittacosis: with results of postmortem examination in a case including studies of the spinal cord. Archives of Internal Medicine 1932, 49: 253–258.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Valero H Human ornithosis in Israel. Harefuah 1953, 45: 102–105.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nicolau S, Surdan C, Saratenu D, Athanastiu P, Fuhrer-Anagnoste B, Iliescu C, Radescu R Viral etiology in the field of cardiovascular affections. I: Isolation of viruses from the blood of patients with cardiovascular affections. Studii si Cercetari de Inframicrobiologie 1962, 12: 275–282.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kemmerer G, Haussmann HG, Schoop G, Kauker E Clinical observations and epidemiology of human ornithosis transmitted by pigeons. German Medical Monthly 1957, 2: 7–12.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yow EM, Brennan JC, Preston J, Levy S The pathology of psittacosis. American Journal of Medicine 1959, 27: 739–746.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jannach JR Myocarditis in infancy with inclusions characteristic of psittacosis. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1958, 96: 734–738.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vosti GJ, Roffwarg H Myocarditis and encephalitis in a case of suspected psittacosis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1961, 54: 764–767.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Matumoto M Miyagawanella: psittacosis-lymphogranuloma group of viruses. 4: Serologically diagnosed human cases of psittacosis in Japan. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine 1968, 28: 41–57.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grist NR, McLean C Infections by organisms of psitacosis lmyphogronuloma venereum group in the west of Scotland. British Medical Journal 1964, 2: 21–25.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ward C, Sagar HJ, Cooper D, Ward AM Insidious endocarditis caused byChalmydia psittaci. British Medical Journal 1975, 4: 734–735.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jones RB, Priest JB, Kuo CC Subacute chlamydial endocarditis. Journal of the American Medical Association 1982, 247: 655–658.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bromage D, Jeffries DJ, Philip G Embolic phenomena in chlamydial infection. Journal of Infection 1980, 2: 151–159.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jariwalla AG, Davies BH, White J Infective endocarditis complicating psittacosis. Response to rifampin. British Medical Journal 1980, 280: 155.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Puolakkainen M, Kousa M, Saikku P Clinical conditions associated with positive complement fixation serology forChlamydiae. Epidemiology and Infection 1987, 98: 101–108.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Walker LJE, Adgey AAJ Sucessful treatment by doxycycline of endocarditis caused by ornithosis. British Heart Journal 1987, 57: 58–60.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Levison DA, Guthrei W, Ward C, Green DM, Robertson PGC Infective endocarditis as part of psittacosis. Lancet 1971, ii: 844–847.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Simpson RW, Huang C, Graham-Smith DG Psittacosis masquerading as rheumatic fever. British Medical Journal 1978, 1: 694–695.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kottinen A, Kajalainen J, Piirainen H Endocarditis and aortic valve insufficiency caused by ornithosis. Duodecim 1978, 94: 449–453.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dick DC, Mcgregor CGA, Mitchell KG, Sommerville RG, Wheatley DG Endocarditis as a manifestation ofChlamydia B infection (psittacosis). British Heart Journal 1977, 39: 914–916.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Darougar S, John AC, Viswalingam M, Cornell L, Jones BR Isolation ofChlamydia psittaci from a patient with interstitial keratitis and uveitis associated with otological and cardiovascular lesions. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1978, 62: 709–714.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ward C Pet birds and acquired chronic valvar disease. Lancet 1971, ii: 546.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Freeman AP Chlamydia endocarditis. Medical Journal of Australia 1981, 1: 642.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Van der Bel-Kahn JM, Watanakunakorn C, Menefee MG, Long HD, Dicter R Chlamydia trachomatis endocarditis. American Heart Journal 1978, 95: 627–636.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ellis RE Chlamydial genital infections: manifestations and management. Southern Medical Journal 1981, 74: 809–813.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dunlop EM, Darougar S, Treharne JD Epidemiology of infection by serotypes D to K ofChlamydia trachomatis. British Journal of Venerial Diseases 1980, 56: 163–168.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Myhre EB, Mardh PA Unusual manifestations ofChlamydia trachomatis infections. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1982, 32: Supplement: 122–126.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brearley BF, Hutchinson DN Endocarditis associated withChlamydia trachomatis infection. British Heart Journal 1981, 46: 220–221.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Holmes KK, Counts GW, Beaty HN Disseminated gonococcal infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 1971, 74: 979–984.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grayston JT, Mordhorst CH, Bruu AL, Vene S, Wang SP Countrywide epidemics ofChlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, in Scandinavia, 1981–1983. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1989, 159: 1111–1114.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marrie TJ, Harczy M, Mann OE, Landymore RW, Raza A, Wang SP, Grayston JT Culture-negative endocarditis probably due toChlamydia pneumoniae. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1990, 161: 127–129.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dumont D, Mathieu D, Alemanni M, Eb F, Manigand G Infective endocarditis probably due toChlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR strain). La Presse Médicale 1990, 19: 1054.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bengtsson E, Lambergen B Five-year follow-up study of cases suggestive of acute myorarditis. American Heart Journal 1966, 72: 751–763.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lermner AM, Wilson FM, Reyes MP Enteroviruses and the heart (with special emphasis on the probable role of Coxsackie viruses group B, types 1–5). II: Observations in humans. Modern Concepts of Cardiovascular Disease 1975, 44: 11–15.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Band CM, Stalely NA, Noren GR Acute viral myocarditis: clinical and histologic changes. Minnesota Medicine 1979, 62: 234–237.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Woodruff JF Viral myocarditis. A review. American Journal of Pathology 1980, 101: 427–484.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vikerfors T, Stijerna A, Olcen P, Malmacrona R, Magnius L Acute myocarditis: serologic diagnosis, clinical findings and follow-up. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1988, 223: 45–52.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Thomas DJB, Macdonald PJ, Fowler JM Mistaken diagnosis — psittacosis myocarditis. Practitioner 1977, 218: 394–398.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Reinicke V, Sondergaard E A familial epidemic of ornithosis. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969, 1: 113–118.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dymock IW, Lawson JM, Maclennan WJ, Ross CAC Myocarditis associated with psittacosis. British Journal of Clinical Practice 1971, 25: 240–242.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reid JM, Kennedy JF, McArthur J Unusual cause of atrial fibrillation. British Medical Journal 1982, 284: 237–238.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Coll R, Honnen I Cardiac involvement in psittacosis. British Medical Journal 1967, 4: 35–36.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Singer E, Sussman O, Barnett JC Psittacosis in northern New Jersey: human and bird transmitted. American Journal of Medicine 1956, 20: 153–156.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Adamy G Klinische Studie über die Psittacose. Deutsches Archiv für Klinische Medizin 1930, 169: 301–305.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Grayston JT, Mordhorst CH, Wang S Childhood myocarditis associated withChlamydia trachomatis infection. Journal of the American Medical Association 1981, 246: 2823–2827.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ringel RE, Givner LB, Brenner JL, Huang SW, Wang SP, Grayston T, Berman MA Myocarditis as a complication of infantileChlamydia trachomatis pneumonitis. Clinical Pediatrics 1983, 22: 631–633.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ringel RE, Brenner JL, Rennels MB, Rennels MB, Huang SW, Wang SP, Grayston T, Berman MA Serological evidence forChlamydia trachomatis myocarditis. Pediatrics 1982, 70: 54–56.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Artigou JY, Masquet C, Battaille J, Piecarski A, Guyen A, Felten A Acute myocarditis simulating an anterior infarction rupture. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux 1984, 77: 451–457.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Odeh M, Oliven A, Rauchfleisch S, Bassan H Dilated cardiomyopathy associated withChlamydia trachomatis infection. Journal of Internal Medicine 1991, 229: 289–291.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Groenhagen-Riska C, Saikku P, Riska H, Froeseth B, Grayston JT Antibodies to TWAR — a novel type ofChlamydia in sarcoidosis. In: Grassi C, Rizzato G, Pozzi E (ed): Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous disorders. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1988, p. 297–301.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Torp A Incidence of congestive cardiomyopathy. In: Godwin JF, Hjalmarson A, Olsen EGJ (ed): Congestive cardiomyopathy. A.B. Hassel, Moindal, Sweden, 1980, p. 18–22.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gillum RF Idiopathic cardiomyopathy in the United States, 1970–1982. American Heart Journal 1986, 111: 752–755.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Anderson KP, Freedman RA, Mason JW Sudden death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Annals of Internal Medicine 1987, 107: 104–106.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Moss AJ Prognosis after myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 1983, 52: 667–669.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lerner AM, Wilson FM, Reyes MP Enteroviruses and the heart (with special emphasis on the probable role of coxsackie viruses, group B types 1–5). I: Epidemiological and experimental studies. Modern Concepts of Cardiovascular Diseases 1975, 44: 7–10.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Smith WG Coxsackie B myopericarditis in adults. American Heart Journal 1970, 80: 34–46.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sainani GS, Krompotic E, Slodki SJ Adult heart disease due to coxsackie virus B infection. Medicine 1968, 47: 133–147.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dec GW, Falacios IF, Fallon JT, Aretz HT, Mills J, Lee DCS, Johnson RA Active myocarditis in the spectrum of acute dilated cardiomyopathies: clinical features, histologic correlates and clinical outcome. New England Journal of Medicine 1985, 312: 885–890.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zee-Cheng CS, Tsai CC, Palmar DC, Codd JE, Pennington DG, Williams GA High incidence of myocarditis by endomyocardial biopsy in patients with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1984, 3: 63–70.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mason JW, Billingham ME, Ricci DR Treatment of acute inflammatory myocarditis assisted by endomyocardial biopsy. American Journal of Cardiology 1980, 45: 1037–1044.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nippoldt TB, Edwards WD, Holmes DR, Reeder GS, Hatzler GO, Smith HC Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy: clinicopathologic correlates in 100 consecutive patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1982, 57: 407–418.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fuster V, Gersh BJ, Giuliani ER, Tajik AJ, Brandenburg RO, Frye RL The natural history of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. American Journal of Cardiology 1984, 47: 525–531.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Johnson RA, Palacios I Dilated cardiomyopathies of the adult. New England Journal of Medicine 1982, 307: 1051–1058, 1119–1126.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fenoglio JJ, Ursell PC, Kellogg CF, Drusin RE, Weiss MB Diagnosis and classification of myocarditis by endomyocardial biopsy. New England Journal of Medicine 1983, 308: 12–18.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Schmaltz AA Myocarditis in childhood. Klinische Pediatrie 1991, 203: 1–7.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hyypie T, Jalava A, Larsen SH, Terho P, Hukkanen V Detection ofChlamydia trachomatis in clincal specimens by nucleic acid spot hybridization. Journal of General Microbiology 1985, 131: 975–978.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ridgway GL, Taylor-Robinson D Human chlamydial infections: which laboratory test? Journal of Clinical Pathology 1991, 44: 1–5.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Taylor-Robinson D, Thomas BJ Laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections. Genitourinary Medicine 1991, 67: 256–266.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pollard DR, Tyler SD, Ng CW, Rozee KR A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the specific detection ofChlamydia spp. Molecular Cell Probes 1989, 3: 383–389.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gilroy CB, Thomas BJ, Taylor-Robinson D Small numbers ofChlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies on slides detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1992, 45: 531–532.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Page S, Stewart JT, Bernstein JJ A progressive pericardial effusion caused by psittacosis. British Heart Journal 1988, 60: 87–89.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Treharne JD Chlamydial infections: laboratory aspects. In: Harris JWR (ed): Recent advances in sexually transmitted diseases. Volume 2. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1981, p. 141–150.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kundu CR, Scott ME Pericardial effusion complicating psittacosis infection. British Heart Journal 1979, 42: 503–505.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Raynaud P, Raffoux P, Laine JL, Raynaud R A case of acute benign pleuro-pricarditis due to ornithosispsittacosis. Archives des Maladies de Coeur et des Vaisseaux 1972, 65: 1019–1024.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Stephan E, Nachable Y, Khoury M, Issa B Pericarditis of psittacosis, (apropos of 3 cases). Archives des Maladies de Coeur et des Vaisseaux 1966, 59: 1257–1265.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schoenmann J, Glasel E Acute benign percarditis due to ornithosis. Zeitschrift für die gesamte Innere Medizin und ihre Grenzgebiete 1965, 20: 121–124.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Mattila K, Ekman MR, Nieminen MS, Makela PH, Huttunen JK, Valtonen V Serological evidence of an association of a novelChlamydia TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1988, ii: 983–986.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kleemola M, Saikku P, Visakorpi R, Wang SP, Grayston JT Epidemics of pneumonia caused by TWAR, a newChlamydia organism, in military trainees in Finland. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1988, 157: 230–236.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mordhorst CH, Wang SP, Myhra W, Grayston JT Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, infections in Denmark 1975–1987. In: Bowie WR, Caldwell HD, Jones RP, Mardh PA, Ridgway GL, Schachter J (ed): Chlamydial infections. Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1990, p. 418–421.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Leinonen M, Linnanmaki E, Mattila K, Nieminen MS, Valtonen V, Leirisalo-Repo M, Saikku P Circulating immune complexes containing chlamydial lipopolysaccharide in acute myocardial infarction. Microbial Pathogenesis 1990, 9: 67–73.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Thom DH, Wang SP, Grayston JT, Siscovic DS, Stewart DK, Kronmal RA, Weiss NS Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR antibody and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 1991, 11: 547–551.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Thom DH, Grayston JT, Siscovick DS, Wang SP, Weiss NS, Daling JR Association of prior infection withChlamydia pneumaniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery diseases. Journal of the American Medical Association 1992, 268: 68–72.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mattila KJ Viral and bacterial infections in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Internal Medicine 1989, 225: 293–296.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Spodick DH Inflammation and the onset of myocardial infarction. Annals of Internal Medicine 1985, 102: 699–702.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cunningham MJ, Pasternak RC The potential role of viruses in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Circulation 1988, 77: 964–966.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Barnett RN, Zimmerman SL Coronary arteritis with fatal thrombosis due toSalmonella chloleraesuis variety kunzendorf. American Heart Journal 1947, 34: 441–446.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    McGee MB, Khan MY Ruptured mycotic aneurysm of a coronary artery: a fatal complication ofSalmonella infection. Archives of Internal Medicine 1980, 140: 1097–1098.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lopes-Virella MF, Virella G Immunological and microbiological factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 1985, 37: 377–386.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr, Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Odeh
    • 1
  • A. Oliven
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine BB'nai Zion Medical Center, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations