, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 772–774 | Cite as

Evidence that the establishment of pregnancy requires activation of lipoxygenase and phospholipase-A2

  • P. V. Holmes
  • P. Hellberg
  • P. Sjöblom
Short Communications


The present work investigates the possibility that lipoxygenase products are involved in the biochemical mechanisms of blastocyst implantation by utilizing nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and caffeic acid (CA), inhibitors of lipoxygenase enzymes, and quinacrine (QU), an inhibitor of phospholipase-A2. It has been shown previously that inhibition of cyclooxygenase results in blockade of implantation. The inhibitors were dissolved in a standard medium and 5 μl of the solutions were micro-injected into the uterine horns of day-4 pregnant mice. The contralateral horns acted as controls and received only vehicle. A sham-operated group provided normal controls. In 14 NDGA-treated mice, the control horns contained 40 implantations while the treated horns contained only 6 small implantations and 8 resorbing sites. These control horns were comparable to the sham controls. In 14 CA-treated mice, treated horns contained 17 small implantations plus 4 resorptions, whereas the control horns contained 26 small implantations and 4 resorptions. Twelve QU-treated mice exhibited 7 small implantations and 4 resorptions in the treated horns, plus 24 small sites and no resorptions in the control horns. Fourteen sham-operated mice had 95 implantation sites and no resorptions in their 28 horns. The results provide evidence for the involvement of the lipoxygenase enzymes and phospholipase-A2 in the initial implantation process and in the subsequent development of early pregnancy.

Key words

Implantation blastocyst decidual reaction lipoxygenase prostaglandins leukotrienes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Heap, R. B., Flint, A. P., and Gadsby, J. E., Proc. natl Acad. Sci. USA72 (1979) 1420.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moor, R. M., J. Anim. Sci. Suppl.1 (1968) 97.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Psychoyos, A., in: Handbook of Physiology, vol. 2, pp. 187–215. Ed. R. O. Greep. Am. Physiol. Soc. Washington DC 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shelesnyak, M. C., Rec. Prog. Horm. Res.8 (1957) 269.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Evans, C. A., and Kennedy, T. G., Proc. Can. Fedn biol. Soc.20 (1977) 168.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evans, C. A., and Kennedy, T. G., J. Reprod. Fert.54 (1978) 255.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holmes, P. V., and Gordashko, B. J., Proc. Can. Fedn Biol. Soc.20 (1977) 668.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holmes, P. V., and Gordashko, B. J., J. Embryol. exp. Morph.55 (1980) 109.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kennedy, T. G., Biol. Reprod.16 (1977) 286.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dickman, Z., and Spilman, C. H., Science190 (1975) 997.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pakrasi, P. L., Becka, R., and Dey, S. K., Prostaglandins29 (1985) 481.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kasamo, M., Ishikawa, M., Yamashita, K., Sengoku, K., and Shimizu, T., Prostaglandins31 (1986) 321.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stone, B. A., Seamark, R. F., Kelly, R. W., and Deam, S., Austr. J. biol. Sci.39 (1986) 283.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lewis, G. S., and Waterman, R. A., Prostaglandins30 (1985) 263.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lewis, G. S., Thatcher, W. W., Bazer, F. W., and Curl, J. S., Biol. Reprod.27 (1982) 431.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Niimura, S., and Ishida, K., J. Reprod. Fert.80 (1987) 505.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kennedy, T. G., and Zamecnik, J., Prostaglandins16 (1978) 599.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Watson, J., and Patek, C. E., J. Endocr.82 (1979) 425.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blatchley, F. R., Donovan, B. T., Horton, E. W., and Poyser, N. L., J. Physiol.223 (1972) 69.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demers, L. M., Yoshinaga, K., and Greep, R. O., Prostaglandins5 (1974) 513.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ham, E. A., Cirillo, V. J., Zanetti, M. E., and Kuehl, F. A. Jr, Proc. natl. Acad. Sci. USA72 (1975) 1420.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kennedy, T. G., Biol. Reprod.23 (1980) 955.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Peleg, S., J. Steroid Biochem.19 (1983) 283.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kennedy, T. G., Keys, J. L., and King, G. J., Biol. Reprod.35 (1986) 624.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kennedy, T. G., Martel, D., and Psychoyos, A., Biol. Reprod.29 (1983a) 556.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kennedy, T. G., Martel, D., and Psychoyos, A., Biol. Reprod.29 (1983b) 565.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Acker, G., Hecquet, F., Etienne, A., Braquet, P., and Mencia-Huerta, J. M., Prostaglandins35 (1988) 233.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tawfik, O. W., and Dey, S. K., Prostaglandins35 (1988) 379.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Holmes, P. V., Lindenberg, S., Hellberg, P., and Janson, P. O., 3rd ESHRE Congress, Cambridge, England 1987.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bach, M. K., in: The Leukotrienes, Chemistry and Biology, pp. 163–194. Eds L. W. Chakrin and D. M. Bailey. Academic Press, New York 1984.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. V. Holmes
    • 1
  • P. Hellberg
    • 1
  • P. Sjöblom
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburg(Sweden)

Personalised recommendations