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Papers of the Regional Science Association

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 63–93 | Cite as

Urbanization and economic growth in Venezuela

  • Roland Artle
Urban Aspects

Keywords

Economic Growth 
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References

  1. 1.
    R. M. Morse, “Recent Research on Latin American Urbanization: A Selective Survey with Commentary,”Latin-American Research Review, I, No. 1 (Fall, 1965), pp. 43.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. M. Rama, “De la singularidad de la urbanización en el Uruguay,”Revista de Ciencias Sociales, VI, No. 2 (June, 1962), p. 183.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carl S. Shoup et al.,The Fiscal System of Venezuela (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1959), p. 48 For a formal analysis of the problem of coverage in available statistics, see Appendix 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    These figures are based on estimates given in the following documents of the Ministerio de Obras Publicas: (a) MOP/DP,Población para 1970, 1980, y 1990 de los Principales Poblados en Venezuela (1969)), (b) MOP/DP,Programa 104 (1969); (c)El Plan de la Nación, 1965–1968 (1967), p. 84; (d) MOP/DP,Procycto de Bases para una Ley de Planificación Territorial y Urbana (1970), p. 18.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. L. Meier,The Developmental Features of Great Cities of Asia (Berkeley, Calif.: Center for Planning and Development Research, 1969.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ibid. (Berkeley, Calif.: Center for Planning and Development Research, 1969). p. 50.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    For an interesting analysis and proof, see H. Simon, “Effects of Increased Productivity upon the Ratio of Urban to Rural Population,”Econometrica, XV (1947), pp. 31–42.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Needless to say, within the bundle of agricultural commodities we will find some for which the income elasticity is in fact quite high, i.e., some fruits, berries, and nuts, but we are here speaking on only the broad aggregate of agricultural products.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perhaps the best known of these studied is P. J. Dhrymes, “A comparison of Productivity Behavior in Manufacturing and Service Industries,”The Review of Economics and Statistics, XLV (1963), pp. 64–69.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See Victor R. Fuchs, ed.,Production and productivity in the Service Industries (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1969), pp. 11–12.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Alonso,Industrial Location and Regional Policy in Economic Development (Berkeley, Calif: Center for Planning and Development Research, 1968), pp. 23–24.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See Victor R. Fuchs,The Service Economy (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1968).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    See, for instance, the section on “Población” inLa Economía Venezolana en los últimos veinticino años (Banco Central de Venezuela, 1966), andPlan de la Nación, 1965–1968 (COR-DIPLAN, 1967), pp. 84–91.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jane Jacobs,The Economy of Cities (New York: Random House, 1969).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    SeeIV Plan de la Nación, Sector Agricola, 1970–1974 (CORDIPLAN, 1970), esp. pp. 9–22.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edward Moscovitch, “Employment Effects of the Urban-Rural Investment Choice,” in Lloyd Rodwin,Planning Urban Growth and Regional Development: The Experience of the Guayana program of Venezuela (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walter Isard,Location and Space-Economy (Cambridge, Mass., New York: The M.I.T. Press and John Wiley & Sons, 1965), pp. 182–183.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. U. Ayres and A. V. Kneese, “Production, Consumption, and Externalities,”American Economic Review (June, 1969), pp. 282–297.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ayres and Kneese,ibid., “Production, Consumption, and Externalities,”American Economic Review (June, 1969), p. 284.Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Plan de la Nación, 1965–1968, p. 91.Google Scholar
  21. 22.
    That relaxation of such bottlenecks in industry by means of immigration can be a touchy issue was suggested by President Rafael Caldera in one of his televised Thursday evening press conferences.Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    Jay W.Forrester,Urban Dynamics (Cambridge, Mass: The M.I.T. Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    W. Goldner,The Lowry Model Heritage (Berkeley, Calif.: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, 1970).Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    Support for the opposite view is given in J. Friedmann,Regional Development Policy: A Case Study of Venezuela (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1966), and Rodwin, ed.,Planning Urban Growth and Regional Development.Google Scholar
  25. 26.
    H. Leibenstein, “Organizational or Frictional Equilibria, X-Efficiency, and the Rate of Innovation,”Quarterly Journal of Economic, LXXXIII (November, 1969), pp. 600–623.Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    An interesting approach to this problem is used by Martin C. McGuire and Harvey A. Garn in a recent paper. They suggest the use of a welfare, or preference, function which explicitly contains a “trade-off” between equity and efficiency criteria. They have applied their formula on an experimental basis in the selection of regional development projects for the United States Economic Development Administration, an agency which makes grants-in-aid (and loans) to economically depressed localities in the United States. See McGuire Garn, “The Integration of Equity and Efficiency Cirteria in Public Project Selection,”Economic Journal, LXXIX (December, 1969), pp. 882–893.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Regional Science Association 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Artle
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaBerkeley

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