, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 963–964 | Cite as

Antifreeze agents in the body fluid of winter active insects and spiders

  • J. A. Husby
  • K. E. Zachariassen


Insects and spiders which are active at subzero temperatures on snow in winter are found to be protected against internal freezing by antifreeze agents present in their body fluid. The body fluid has a melting point of about −1 °C, but the antifreeze agents prevent growth of ice crystals at temperatures down to −6 to −7 °C.


Melting Point Body Fluid Subzero Temperature Active Insect Antifreeze Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 2.
    L. Sømme and E. Østbye, Norsk, ent. Tidsskr.16, 45 (1969).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    S. Hågvar, Norsk ent. Tidsskr.20, 309 (1973).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    P.F. Scholander, L. van Dam, J.W. Kanwisher and H.T. Hammel, J. cell. comp. Physiol.49, 5 (1957).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    J.G. Duman and A.L. DeVries, Comp. Biochem. Physiol.54B, 375 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    J.G. Duman, J. comp. Physiol.115, 279 (1977).Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    J.G. Duman, J. comp. Physiol.131, 347 (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    A.R. Hargens, Cryobiology10, 331 (1973).Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    H. Theede, R. Schneppenheim and L. Béress, Mar. Biol.36, 183 (1976).Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    J.G. Duman, J. exp. Zool.201, 85 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    R.W. Salt, Can. J. Zool.37, 59 (1959).Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    L. Sømme, Can. J. Zool.42, 87 (1964).Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    K.E. Zachariassen, Norsk ent. Tidsskr.20, 259 (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    C.R. Weast ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 58th edn. Chemical Rubber Company Press, West Palm Beach 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Husby
    • 1
  • K. E. Zachariassen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe University of TrondheimTrondheim(Norway)

Personalised recommendations