, Volume 35, Issue 12, pp 1661–1663 | Cite as

Elimination and metabolism of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) byXenopus laevis and other amphibians

  • R. R. Rao
  • R. H. Clothier
  • R. M. Hodgson
  • M. Balls


The elimination of (14C)-DMN after i.p. injection intoXenopus was measured, as was the metabolism in vitro of (14C)-DMN by liver fromXenopus and 9 other amphibian species. In view of its rapid elimination from the body and low rate of metabolism byXenopus liver in vitro, DMN is unlikely to be toxic or carcinogenic inXenopus.


Amphibian Species Rapid Elimination Dimethylnitrosamine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 4.
    L. M. Ashley and J. E. Halver, J. nat. Cancer Inst.41, 531 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 5.
    M. F. Stanton, J. nat. Cancer Inst.34, 117 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 6.
    R. W. O'Gara, R. H. Adamson and D. W. Dalgard, Proc. Am. Ass. Cancer Res.11, 60 (1970).Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    M. G. Kelly, R. W. O'Gara, R. H. Adamson, K. Gadekar, C. G. Botkin, W. H. Reese and W. T. Kerber, J. nat. Cancer Inst.36, 329 (1966).Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    P. N. Magee and P. F. Swann, Br. med. Bull.24, 240 (1969).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    R. Montesano, A. J. Ingram and P. N. Magee, Experientia29, 599 (1973).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 10.
    A. J. Ingram, Br. J. Cancer26, 206 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 11.
    V. V. Khudoley, Neoplasma24, 249 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 12.
    M. Balls, R. H. Clothier and L. N. Ruben, in: Animal Models of Comparative and Developmental Aspects of Immunity and Disease p. 48. Ed. M. E. Gershwin and E. L. Cooper. Pergamon Press, New York 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 3.
    M. Balls, D. Brown and N. Fleming, Meth. Cell Biol.13, 239 (1976).Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    P. F. Swann, Biochem. J.110, 49 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 15.
    M. A. Monnickendam and M. Balls, Comp. Biochem. Physiol.44A, 871 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 16.
    A. E. Pegg, Adv. Cancer Res.25, 195 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Rao
    • 1
  • R. H. Clothier
    • 1
  • R. M. Hodgson
    • 1
  • M. Balls
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human MorphologyUniversity of Nottingham, Queen's Medical CentreNottingham(England)

Personalised recommendations