, Volume 45, Issue 10, pp 965–972 | Cite as

Neural systems underlying photoperiodic time measurement: A blueprint

  • J. Herbert
Multi-author Review


This paper briefly reviews the formal properties of the photoperiodic time measurement apparatus of mammals and presents a hypothetical model for the operation of the neural systems responsible for reading and responding to the nocturnal pineal melatonin signal. The primary melatonin readout mechanism is held to be common to all species responsive to melatonin. It seems likely that this mechanism responds to relative changes in the duration and amplitude of the melatonin signal, rather than the absolute levels of melatonin encountered. A series of neural systems which exploit the calendar information provided by the primary readout is envisaged to vary between and within species, depending upon the neuroendocrine response under consideration. Of particular importance is a mechanism for comparing the relative duration of successive melatonin signals. These more complex elements are responsible for phenomena such as the effects of photopheriodic history and photorefractoriness. The brain may be able to encode an accumulated memory of melatonin signals and thereby define longer term intervals within the annual cycle. A series of response elements within the hypothalamus are engaged by the appropriately processed photoperiodic stimuli. For all elements of this model, their anatomical representations are poorly understood or, in certain cases, completely unknown.

Key words

Melatonin pineal hypothalamus photoperiodism neural times 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Herbert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland

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