Advertisement

Experientia

, Volume 42, Issue 11–12, pp 1187–1191 | Cite as

Life above the boiling point of water?

  • K. O. Stetter
  • G. Fiala
  • R. Huber
  • G. Huber
  • A. Segerer
Article

Summary

Various extremely thermophilic archaebacteria exhibit optimum growth at above 80°C.Pyrodictium is the most thermophilic of these organisms, growing at temperatures of up to 110°C and exhibiting optimum growth at about 105°C. All of these organisms grow by diverse types of anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.

Key words

Archaebacteria thermophilic bacteria Pyrodictium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baross, J. A., and Deming, J. W., Growth of ‘black smoker’ bacteria at temperatures of at least 250°C. Nature303 (1983) 423–426.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernhardt, G., Lüdemann, H. D., Jaenicke, R., König, H., and Stetter, K. O., Biomolecules are unstable under ‘black smoker’ conditions. Naturwissenschaften71 (1984) 583–585.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brock, T. D., Thermophilic microorganisms and life at high temperatures. Springer Verlag, New York/Heidelberg/Berlin 1978.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brock, T. D., Brock, K. M., Belly, R. T., and Weiss, R. L.,Sulfolobus: A new genus of sulfur oxidizing bacteria living at low pH and high temperature. Archs Microbiol.84 (1972) 54–68.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Corliss, J. B., Dymond, J., Gordon, L. J., Edmond, J. M., Von Herzen, R. P., Ballard, R. D., Green, K., Williams, D., Bainbridge, A., Crane, K., and Van Andel, T. H., Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift. Science203 (1979) 1073–1083.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fiala, G., and Stetter, K. O.,Pyrococcus furiosus sp.nov. represents a novel genus of marine heterotrophic archaebacteria growing optimally at 100°C. Archs Microbiol.145 (1986) 56–61.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fiala, G., Stetter, K. O., Jannasch, H. W., Langworthy, T. A., and Madon, J.,Staphylothermus marinus sp. nov. represents a novel genus of extremely thermophilic submarine heterotrophic archaebacteria growing up to 98°C. System. appl. Microbiol.8 (1986) 106–113.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fischer, F., Zillig, W., Stetter, K. O., and Schreiber, G., Chemolithoautotrophic metabolism of anaerobic extremely thermophilic archaebacteria. Nature301 (1983) 511–513.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huber, G., Huber, H., and Stetter, K. O., Isolation and Characterization of new metal-mobilizing bacteria. Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. (1986) in press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huber, R., Langworthy, T. A., König, H., Thomm, M., Woese, C. R., Sleytr, U. B., and Stetter, K. O.,Thermotoga maritima sp. nov. represents a new genus of unique extremely thermophilic eubacteria growing up to 90°C. Archs Microbiol.144 (1986) 324–333.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kandler, O., and König, H., Cell envelopes of archaebacteria, in: The Bacteria. A Treatise on Structure and Function, vol. 8, Archaebacteria, pp. 413–457. Eds C. R. Woese and R. S. Wolfe. Academic Press, New York/London 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    König, H., and Stetter, K. O., Studies on archaebacterial S-layers. System. appl. Microbiol.8 (1986) 100–105.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lauerer, G., Kristjansson, J. K., Langworthy, T. A., König, H., and Stetter, K. O.,Methanothermus sociabilis sp. nov., a second species within theMethanothermaceae growing at 97°C. System. appl. Microbiol.8 (1986) 100–105.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Segerer, A., Stetter, K. O., and Klink, F., Two contrary modes of chemolithotrophy in the same archaebacterium. Nature313 (1985) 787–789.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stetter, K. O., Ultrathin mycelia-forming organisms from submarine volcanic areas having an optimum growth temperature of 105°C. Nature300 (1982) 258–260.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stetter, K. O., and Gaag, G., Reduction of molecular sulphur by methanogenic bacteria. Nature305 (1983) 309–311.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stetter, K. O., König, H., and Stackebrandt, E.,Pyrodictium gen. nov., a new genus of submarine disc-shaped sulphur reducing archaebacteria growing optimally at 105°C. System. appl. Microbiol.4 (1983) 535–551.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stetter, K. O., Thomm, M., Winter, J., Wildgruber, G., Huber, H., Zillig, W., Janekovic, D., König, H., Palm, P., and Wunderl, S.,Methanothermus fervidus, sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic methanogen isolated from an Icelandic hot spring. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., Abt. I. Orig. C2 (1981) 166–178.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stetter, K. O., and Zillig, W.,Thermoplasma and the thermophilic sulfur-dependent archaebacteria, in: The Bacteria, vol. 8, Archaebacteria, pp. 85–170. Eds C. R. Woese and R. S. Wolfe. Academic Press, New York 1985.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trent, J. D., Chastain, R. A., and Yayanos, A. A., Possible artefactual basis for apparent bacterial growth at 250°C. Nature207 (1984) 737–740.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    White, R. H., Hydrolytic stability of biomolecules at high temperatures and its implication for life at 250°C. Nature310 (1984) 430–432.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Williams, H., and McBirney, A. R., Volcanology. Freeman, Cooper and Co., San Francisco 1979.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Woese, C. R., Gupta, R., Hahn, C. M., Zillig, W., and Tu, J., The phylogenetic relationships of three sulfur-dependent archaebacteria. System. appl. Microbiol.5 (1984) 97–105.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zillig, W., Stetter, K. O., Schäfer, W., Janekovic, D., Wunderl, S., Holz, I., and Palm, P.,Thermoproteales: A novel type of extremely thermoacidophilic anaerobic archaebacteria isolated from Icelandic solfataras. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., Abt. I. Orig. C 2 (1981) 205–227.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zillig, W., Stetter, K. O., Wunderl, S., Schulz, W., Priess, W., and Scholz, I., TheSulfolobus — ‘Caldariella’ group: Taxonomy on the basis of the structure of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Archs Microbiol.125 (1980) 259–269.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. O. Stetter
    • 1
  • G. Fiala
    • 1
  • R. Huber
    • 1
  • G. Huber
    • 1
  • A. Segerer
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für MikrobiologieUniversität RegensburgRegensburgFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations