, Volume 42, Issue 7, pp 848–851 | Cite as

Sclerotial and low aflatoxigenic morphological variants from haploid and diploidAspergillus parasiticus

  • J. W. Bennett
  • Phaik-Mooi Leong
  • S. Kruger
  • D. Keyes
Short Communications


Serial transfer of mycelial macerates of a wild type, haploid, aflatoxigenic strain ofAspergillus parasiticus in a defined liquid medium resulted in the production of three new morphological classes: a sclerotial form with high aflatoxin production, and two variant forms (fan andfluff) with lowered sporulation, no sclerotia, and attenuated levels of aflatoxin. A genetically marked diploid containing mutant markers for aflatoxin pathway intermediates yielded the same three morphological classes upon serial transfer of macerated mycelia. When these diploid variants were treated with a haploidization agent, and the phenotypes of the resultant segregants scored, a low frequency of colonies producing aflatoxin pathway intermediates was recovered. These genetic data indicate that the structural genes for the aflatoxin pathway are present but somehow attenuated in thefan andfluff strains.

Key Words

Aflatoxin Aspergillus parasiticus sclerotia mycelial maceration strain degeneration 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.
    Diener, U. L., and Davis, N. D., Phytopathology56 (1966) 1390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 4.
    Mayne, R. Y., Bennett, J. W., and Tallant, J., Mycologia63 (1971) 644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 5.
    Lee, E. G.-H., and Townsley, P. M., J. Food Sci.33 (1968) 420.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Bennett, J. W., J. gen. Microbiol.124 (1981) 429.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Bennett, J. W., Silverstein, R. B., and Kruger, S. J., J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.58 (1981) 952A.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Torres, J., Guarro, J. Suarez, G., Sune, N., Calvo, M. A., and Ramirez, C., Mycopathologia72 (1980) 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 9.
    Papa, K. E., Mycologia65 (1973) 1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 10.
    Papa, K. E., Mycologia70 (1978) 766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 11.
    Bennett, J. W., and Christensen, S. B., Adv. appl. Microbiol.29 (1983) 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 12.
    Bennett, J. W., J. gen. Microbiol.113 (1979) 127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 13.
    Adye, J., and Mateles, R. I., Biochem. biophys. Acta86 (1964) 135.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Hara, S., Fennell, D. I., and Hesseltine, C. W., Appl. Microbiol.27 (1974) 1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 15.
    Pons, W. A., Cucullu, A. F., Franz, A. O., and Goldblatt, L. A., J. Ass. off. analyt. Chem.45 (1968) 694.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    We are indebted to Dr M. Christensen, Department of Botany, Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA, for taxonomic identification of the variants.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Raper, K. B., and Fennell, D. I., The GenusAspergillus, William & Wilkins. Baltimore 1965.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Christensen, M., Mycologia73 (1981) 1056.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    Murakami, H., Hayashi, K., and Ushijima, S. J., Gen. appl. Microbiol.28 (1982) 55.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Bennett, J. W., Wheeler, D. G., and Dunn, J. J., in: Advances in Biotechnology, Vol. 3, Fermentation products, p. 417. Eds M. Moo-Young, C. Vezina and K. Singh. Pergamon, Toronto 1981.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Bennett, J. W., in: Overproduction of Microbial Products, p. 549. Eds V. Krumphanzl, B. Sikyta and Z. Vanek, Academic Press, London 1982.Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    Bennett, J. W., Vinnett, C. H., and Goynes, W. R., Can. J. Microbiol.26 (1980) 706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 23.
    Jinks, J. L., Nature174 (1954) 409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 24.
    Jinks, J. L., in: The Fungi, Vol. 2. The fungal organism, p. 619. Eds G. C. Ainsworth and A. S. Sussman, Academic Press, New York 1966.Google Scholar
  23. 25.
    Foster, J. W., Woodruff, H. B., and McDaniel, L. E., J. Bacteriol.46 (1943) 421.Google Scholar
  24. 26.
    Hansen, H. N., and Snyder, W. C., Science49 (1944) 264.Google Scholar
  25. 27.
    Whiffen, A. J., and Savage, G. M., J. Bact.53 (1947) 231.Google Scholar
  26. 28.
    MacDonald, K. D., Nature218 (1968) 371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 29.
    Hansen, H. N., Mycologia30 (1938) 442.Google Scholar
  28. 30.
    Kafer, E., Genetics46 (1961) 1581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 31.
    Ball, J., J. gen. Microbiol.66 (1971) 63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 32.
    Chang, L. T., and Tuveson, R. W., Appl. Microbiol.30 (1975) 141.Google Scholar
  31. 33.
    Chater, K. F., in: The Stability of Industrial Organisms, p. 7. Ed. B. E. Kirsop, Commonwealth Mycological Institute Kew 1980.Google Scholar
  32. 34.
    Turner, G., and Ballance, J., in: Gene Manipulation in Fungi, p. 259. Eds J. W. Bennett and L. S. Lasure. Academic Press, New York 1985.Google Scholar
  33. 35.
    Niehaus, W. G. Jr, and Failla, L., J. expl. Mycol.8 (1984) 80.Google Scholar
  34. 36.
    Buchanan, R. L., and Lewis, D. F., Appl. envir. Microbiol.48 (1984) 306.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Bennett
    • 1
  • Phaik-Mooi Leong
    • 1
  • S. Kruger
    • 1
  • D. Keyes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations