Plant and Soil

, Volume 43, Issue 1–3, pp 523–536 | Cite as

Effect of bicarbonate-rich irrigation waters on the growth, nutrient uptake and synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates in wheat

  • K. V. Paliwal
  • G. L. Maliwal
  • G. C. Nanawati


A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of increasing levels of HCO3 ion concentration and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) on the growth, nutrient uptake and synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates in wheat. Wheat could tolerate 8 me/l HCO3 ion concentration at 40 me/l salt concentration; however, the residual sodium carbonate at this level was more harmful when it was composed of carbonate plus bicarbonate rather than bicarbonate alone. The relative order in yield reduction was: root < grain > plant. The uptake of sodium was enhanced and that each of potassium, calcium and magnesium was decreased with the increasing bicarbonate ion concentration. The contents of proteins and carbohydrates, in different forms, were decreased with the increase of HCO3 levels, particularly above 8 me/l. Contents, both of sugars and proteins, were more in grain than in plant. The specific effect of CO3= and/or HCO3 ions seems to inhibit the metabolic processes in the plant and appears responsible for reduction of crop growth, absorption of nutrients and synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates.


Sugar Magnesium Carbohydrate Nutrient Uptake Bicarbonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abdelsalam, M. A., Sabet, S. A., Elkadi, M. A. and Harga, A. A., Plant growth and mineral content as related to varying bicarbonate ion levels in irrigation water. Plant and Soil23, 192–202 (1965).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdelsalam, M. A. and Elkadi, M. A., Plant growth and mineral content of barley as related to irrigation with bicarbonate waters. Plant and Soil23, 377–384 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.O.A.C., Official Methods of Analysis. ed. William Harustz. A.O.A.C. Pub. (1955).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baxter, P. and Belcher, R., The role of bicarbonate ion in lime induced chlorosis. J. Australian Inst. Agr. Sci.21, 32–34 (1955).Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Brown, J. C., An evaluation of bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis. Soil Sci.89, 246–247 (1960).Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    Brown, J. C., Iron chlorosis in plants. Adv. Agron.13, 329–368 (1961).Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Derderian, M. D., Determination of calcium and magnesium in plant material with EDTA. Anal. Chem.33, 1796–1797 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 9.
    Dubois, al., Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem.28, 350–356 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.
    Eaton, I. M., Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Sci.69, 123–133 (1950).Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Gandhi, A. P., Ph.D. thesis, Udaipur University (1973).Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Harley, C. P. and Linder, R. C., Observed responses of apple and pear trees to some irrigation waters of north central Washington. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.46, 35–44 (1945).Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Helmy, A. K. and Elgabaly, M. M., Exchange reactions between sodium salts and calcium saturated soils. Alexandria Agr. Research11, 45–57 (1954).Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Kanwar, B. S. and Kanwar, J. S., Effect of residual sodium carbonate water in irrigation water on plant and soil. Indian J. Agr. Sci.41, 54–66 (1972).Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Lindsan, W. L. and Thorne, D. W., Bicarbonate ion and oxygen level related to chlorosis. Soil Sci.77, 271–279 (1954).Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Lowry, H. O., Rosebrough, N. J., Parry, A. C. and Randell, R. J., Protein measurement with foliar phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem.193, 265 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 17.
    Miller, G. W. and Thorne, D. W., Effect of bicarbonate ion on the respiration of excised roots. Plant Physiol.31, 151–153 (1956).Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Paliwal, K. V., Quality of irrigation water resources and their utilization in agriculture. Paper presented at the symp. Water Resources of India and their optimum utilization in Agriculture, I.A.R.I., New Delhi, March 21–22, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    Paliwal, K. V., Irrigation with saline water. Indian Agr. Research Inst. Monograph No.2, (1972).Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    Paliwal, K. V. and Gandhi, A. P., Anion effect on germination of some Jowar and Paddy varieties in saline substrate. Indian J. Plant Physiol.11, 62–67 (1968).Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    Strogonov, B. P., Physiological basis of salt tolerance of plants (1964).Transl. Poljakoff-Mayber, A. and Myer, A. M., Israel Prog. Sci. Translation, Jerusalem.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. V. Paliwal
    • 1
  • G. L. Maliwal
    • 1
  • G. C. Nanawati
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Experiment StationUniversity of UdaipurUdaipur

Personalised recommendations