Experientia

, Volume 47, Issue 8, pp 751–755 | Cite as

Phytotoxins and their involvement in plant diseases. Introduction

  • A. Graniti
Multi-author Review Phytotoxins and their involvement in plant diseases

Abstract

Bacterial and fungal plant pathogens are known to produce diffusible toxins in infected plants. These phytotoxins are harmful to plants in very low concentrations, and many reproduce at least some of the symptoms of the relevant bacterial or fungal disease. Several phytotoxins have been shown to be involved in pathogenesis. Recent years have seen substantial progress in our knowledge about the nature, structure and mode of action of phytotoxins, and this is briefly reviewed. Finally, possible applications in fields other than plant pathology are mentioned.

Key words

Toxins phytotoxins plant diseases plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anzai, H., Yoneyama, K., and Yamaquchi, I., Transgenic tobacco resistant to a bacterial disease by the detoxification of a pathogenic toxin. Molec. gen. Genet.219 (1989) 492–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asada, Y., Bushnell, W. R., Ouchi, S., and Vance, C. P. (Eds), Plant Infection. The Physiological and Biochemical Basis. Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1982.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Auriol, Y., Touzé, A., and Albertini, L. (Eds), Les phytotoxines microbiennes. 25e Colloque de la Societé française de Phytopathologie. Agronomie4 (1984) 687–698.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ayres, P. G., Effects of Disease on the Physiology of the Growing Plant. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1981.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bailey, J. A. (Ed.), Biology and Molecular Biology of Plant Pathogen Interactions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailey, J. A., and O'Connel, R. J., Plant cell death: a determinant of disease resistance and susceptibility, in: Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, pp. 275–283. Eds A. Graniti, R. D. Durbin and A. Ballio, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1989.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ballio, A., Brufani, M., Casinovi, C. G., Cerrini, S., Fedeli, W., Pellicciari, R., Santurbano, B., and Vaciago, A., The structure of fusicoccin A. Experientia24 (1968) 631–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beckman, C. H., The Nature of Wilt Diseases of Plants. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota 1987.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cervone, F., De Lorenzo, G., D'Ovidio, R., Hahn, M. G., Ito, Y., Darvill, A., and Albersheim, P., Phytotoxic effects and phytoalexinelicitor activity of microbial pectic enzymes, in: Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, pp. 473–477. Eds A. Graniti, R. D. Durbin and A. Ballio. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chelkowski, J. (Ed.)Fusarium Mycotoxin, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity. Topics in Secondary Metabolism, vol. 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Daly, J. M., The role of recognition in plant disease. A. Rev. Phytopath.22 (1984) 273–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daly, J. M., and Deverall, B. J. (Eds), Toxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Academic Press Australia, Sydney 1983.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daly, J. M., and Knoche, H. W., The chemistry and biology of pathotoxins exhibiting host-selectivity, in: Advances in Plant Pathology, vol. 1, pp. 87–138. Eds D. S. Ingram and P. H. Williams. Academic Press, London 1982.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daly, J. M., Kono, Y., Suzuki, Y., and Knoche, H. W., Biological activities and structures of host-selective pathotoxins, in: TUPAC Pesticide Chemistry: Human Welfare and the Environment, vol. 2, pp. 11–20. Eds J. Miyamoto and P. C. Kearney. Pergamon Press, New York 1983.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Bary, A., Über einige Sclerotien und Sclerotienkrankheiten. Bot. Ztg44 (1886) 377–474.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duke, S. O., Microbially produced phytotoxins as herbicides — a perspective, in: The Science of Allelpathy, pp. 287–304. Eds A. R. Putnam and C. S. Tang. Wiley-Interscience, New York 1986.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Durbin, R. D. (Ed.), Toxins in Plant Disease. Academic Press, New York 1981.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Durbin, R. D., The biochemistry of fungal and bacterial toxins and their modes of action, in: Biochemistry Plant Pathology, pp. 137–162. Ed. J. A. Callow. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester 1983.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Durbin, R. D., The mechanism for self-protection against bacterial phytotoxins. A. Rev. Phytopath.26 (1988) 313–329.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Durbin, R. D., and Graniti, A., Possible applications of phytotoxins, in: Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, pp. 335–355. Eds A. Graniti, R. D. Durbin and A. Ballio. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1989.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gäumann, E., Toxins and plant diseases. Endeavour13 (1954) 198–204.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gäumann, E., Naef-Roth, S., and Kobel, H., Über Fusarinsäre, ein zweites Welketoxin desFusarium lycopersici Sacc., Phytopath. Z.20 (1954) 1–38.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gilchrist, D. G., Clouse, S. D., McFarland, B. L., and Martensen, A. N., Phytotoxins as molecular determinants of pathogenicity and virulence, in: Molecular Genetics of Filamentous Fungi, pp. 405–420. Ed. W. E. Timberlake. Alan R. Liss Inc., New York 1985.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goodman, R. N., Király, Z., and Wood, K. R., Toxins, in: The Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Disease, pp. 318–346. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Missouri 1986.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Graniti, A., The evolution of the toxin concept in plant pathology, in: Phytotoxins in Plant Diseases, pp. 1–15. Eds R. K. S. Wood, A. Ballio and A. Graniti. Academic Press, London, New York 1972.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Graniti, A., Fusicoccin and stomatal transpiration, in: Host-specific Toxins: Recognition and Specificity Factors in Plant Disease, pp. 143–152. Eds K. Kohmoto and R. D. Durbin. Tottori University Press, Tottori, Japan 1989.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Graniti, A., Durbin, R. D., and Ballio, A. (Eds), Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1989.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hahn, M. G., Bucheli, P., Cervone, F., Doares, S. H., O'Neill, R. A., Darvill, A., and Albersheim, P., Roles of cell wall constituents in plant-pathogen interactions, in: Plant-Microbe Interactions. Molecular and Genetic Perspectives, vol. 3, pp. 131–181. Eds T. Kosuge and E. W. Nester. McGraw-Hill Publ. Co., New York 1989.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hayami, C., Otani, H., Nishimura, S., and Kohmoto, K., Induced resistance in pear leaves by spore germination fluids of non pathogens to Alternaria alternata, Japanese pear pathotype, and suppression of the induction by AK toxin. J. Fac. Agric. Tottori Univ.17 (1982) 9–18.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kenfield, D., Bunkers, G., Strobel, G., and Sugawara, F., Fungal phytotoxins — potential new herbicides, in: Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, pp. 319–335. Eds A. Graniti, R. D. Durbin and A. Ballio. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1989.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kern, H., Phytotoxins produced byFusaria, in: Phytotoxins in Plant Diseases, pp. 35–45. Eds R. K. S. Wood, A. Ballio and A. Graniti. Academic Press, London, New York 1972.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Knoche, H. W., and Duvick, J. P., The role of fungal toxins in plant disease, in: Fungal Infection of Plants, pp. 158–192. Eds G. F. Pegg and P. G. Aires. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1988.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kohmoto, K., and Durbin, D. D. (Eds), Host Specific Toxins: Recognition and Specificity Factors in Plant Disease. Tottori University Press, Tottori, Japan 1989.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kono, Y., and Daly, J. M., Characterization of the host-specific pathotoxin produced byHelminthosporium maydis, race T, affecting corn with Texas male sterile cytoplasm. Bioorg. Chem.8 (1979) 391–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kono, Y., and Suzuki, Y., Host-specific toxins, in: Bioactive Natural Products, pp. 73–87, Ed. S. Shibata. Ishiyaku-Shuppan, Japan 1988.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kosuge, T., and Nester, E. W. (Eds), Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular and Genetic Perspectives, vols 1, 2 and 3. McMillan Publ. Co./McGraw Hill Publ. Co., New York 1984, 1987, 1989.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kuo, M. S., and Scheffer, R. P., Evaluation of fusaric acid as a factor in development of Fusarium wilt. Phytopathology54 (1964) 1041–1044.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leong, S. A., and Holden, D. W., Molecular genetic approaches to the study of fungal pathogenesis. A. Rev. Phytopath.27 (1989) 463–481.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lugtemberg, B. (Ed.), Recognition in Microbe-Plant Symbiotic and Pathogenic Interactions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1986.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marrè, E., Fusiococcin: A tool in plant physiology. A. Rev. Pl. Physiol.30 (1979) 273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marrè, E., Mechanisms of action of phytotoxins affecting plasmalemma functions. Progr. Phytochem.6 (1980) 253–284.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mehean, F., and Murphy, H. C., Differential phytotoxicity of metabolic by-products ofHelminthosporium victoriae. Science10 (1947) 270–271.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Misaghi, I. J., The role of pathogen-produced toxins in pathogenesis, in: Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant-Pathogen Interactions, pp. 36–61. Ed. I. J. Misaghi. Plenum Press, New York and London 1982.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mitchell, R. E., The relevance of non-host-specific toxins in the expression of virulence by pathogens. A. Rev. Phytopath.22 (1984) 215–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nakatsuka, S., Goto, T., Kohmoto, K., and Nishimura, S., Hostspecific phytotoxins, in: Natural Products and Biological Activities. A Naito Foundation Symposium, pp. 11–18. Eds H. Imura, T. Goto, T. Murachi and T. Nakajima. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo/Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam 1986.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Natori, S., Hashimoto, K., and Ueno, Y. (Eds), Mycotoxins and Phytotoxins '88. Bioactive Molecules, vol. 10. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nishimura, S., and Kohmoto, K., Host-specific toxins and chemical structures fromAlternaria species. A. Rev. Phytopath.21 (1983) 87–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nishimura, S., Vance, C. P., and Doke, N. (Eds), Molecular Determinants of Plant Diseases. Japan Sci. Press, Tokyo/Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1987.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Okuno, T., Ishita, Y., Sawaii, K., and Matsumoto, T., Characterization of alternariolide, a host-specific toxin produced byAlternaria mali Roberts. Chemistry Lett., Chem. Soc. Japan (1974) 635–638.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ouchi, S., Toyoda, H., Utsumi, R., Hashimoto, H., and Hadama, T., A promising strategy for the control of fungal diseases by the use of toxin-degrading microbes, in: Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis, pp. 301–317. Eds A. Graniti, R. D. Durbin and A. Ballio. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1989.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Patil, S. S., Mills, D., and Vance, C. (Eds), Molecular Strategies of Pathogens and Host Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1990.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pegg, G. F., The role of growth regulators in plant disease, in: Plant Diseases: Infection, Damage and Loss, pp. 29–48. Eds R. K. S. Wood and G. J. Jellis. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford 1984.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rudolph, K., Non-specific toxins, in: Physiological Plant Pathology, pp. 230–315. Eds R. Heitefuss and P. H. Williams. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rudolph, K., Toxins as taxonomic features, in: Methods in Phytobacteriology, pp. 251–267. Eds Z. Klement, K. Rudolph and D. C. Sands. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1990.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Scheffer, R. P., Host-specific toxins, in: Physiological Plant Pathology, pp. 270–315. Eds R. Heitefuss and P. H. Williams. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scheffer, R. P., Toxins as chemical determinants of plant disease, in: Toxins and Plant Pathogenesis, pp. 1–40. Eds J. M. Daly and B. J. Deverall. Academic Press, Sydney 1983.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Scheffer, R. P., and Briggs, S. P., Introduction: A perspective of toxin studies in plant pathology, in: Toxins in Plant Diseases, pp. 1–20. Ed. R. D. Durbin, Academic Press, New York 1981.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Scheffer, R. P., and Livingston, R. S., Host-selective toxins and their role in plant diseases. Science223 (1984) 17–21.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sequeira, L., Recognition and specificity between plants and pathogens, in: Challenging Problems in Plant Health, pp. 301–310. Eds T. Kommendahl and P. M. Williams. American Phytopath. Soc., St. Paul 1983.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shahin, E. A., and Spivey, R., A single dominant gene forFusarium wilt resistance in protoplast-derived tomato plants. Theor. appl. Genet.73 (1986) 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Smedegaard-Petersen, V., and Nelson, R. P., The production of a host-specific pathotoxin byCochliobolus heterostrophus. Can. J. Bot.47 (1969) 951–957.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Steyn, P. S., and Vleggaar, R. (Eds), Mycotoxins and Phytotoxins. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam 1986.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Strobel, G. A., Phytotoxins. A. Rev. Biochem.51 (1982) 309–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Strobel, G. A., Sugawara, F., and Clardy, J., Phytotoxins from plant pathogens of woody plants, in: Allelochemicals: Role in Agriculture and Forestry, pp. 516–523. Ed. G. R. Waller, ACS Symposium Series 330, Washington 1987.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Surico, G., Comai, L., and Kosuge, T., Pathogenicity of strains ofPseudomonas syringae pv.savastanoi and their indoleacetic acid-deficient mutants on olive and oleander. Phytopathology74 (1984) 490–493.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Surico, G., Iacobellis, N. S., and Sisto, A., Studies on the role of indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins in the formation of knots on olive and oleander plants byPseudomonas syringae pv.savastanoi. Physiol. Pl. Path.26 (1985) 309–320.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tanaka, S., Studies on black spot disease of the Japanese pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd). Mem. Coll. Agric. Kyoto Imp. Univ.28, (1933), 1–31.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Turner, J. G., Role of toxins in plant disease, in: Plant Diseases: Infection, Damage and Loss, pp. 3–12. Eds R. K. S. Wood and G. J. Jellis. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford 1984.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Turner, N. C., and Graniti, A., Fusicoccin: a fungal toxin that open stomata. Nature223 (1969) 1070–1071.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Utsumi, R., Hadama, T., Noda, M., Toyoda, H., Hashimoto, H., and Ouchi, S., Cloning of fusaric acid-detoxifying gene fromCladosporium werneckii: A new strategy for the prevention of plant diseases. J. Biotechnol.8 (1989) 311–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Van Alfen, N. K., Reassessment of plant with toxins. A. Rev. Phytopath.27 (1989) 533–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wood, R. K. S., Ballio, A., and Graniti, A. (Eds), Phytotoxins and Plant Diseases. Academic Press, London, New York 1972.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yoder, O. C., Toxins in pathogenesis. A. Rev. Phytopath.18 (1980) 103–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yoder, O. C., and Turgeon, B. G., Molecular bases of fungal pathogenicity to plants, in: Gene Manipulations in Fungi, pp. 417–448. Eds J. W. Bennett and L. L. Lasure. Academic Press, Orlando 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Graniti
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Patologia VegetaleUniversità di BariBari(Italy)

Personalised recommendations