Experientia

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 592–601 | Cite as

Genetic variation in the New World: Ancient teeth, bone, and tissue as sources of DNA

  • D. A. Merriwether
  • F. Rothhammer
  • R. E. Ferrell
Multi-Author Reviews

Abstract

Examination of ancient and contemporary Native American mtDNA variation via diagnostic restriction sites and the 9-pb Region V deletion suggests a single wave of migration into the New World. This is in contrast to data from Torroni et al.34 which suggested two waves of migration into the New World (the NaDene and Amerind). All four founding lineage types are present in populations in North, Central, and South America suggesting that all four lineages came over together and spead throughout the New World. Ancient Native American DNA shows that all four lineages were present before European contact in North America, and at least two were present in South America. The presence of all four lineages in the NaDene and the Amerinds argues against separate migrations founding these two groups, although admixture between the groups is still a viable explanation for the presence of all four types in the NaDene.

Key words

Mitochondrial DNA ancient DNA Native Americans 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson, S., Bankier, A. T., Barrel, B. G., DeBulin, M. H. L., Coulson, A. R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I. C., Nierlich, D. P., Roe, B. A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P. H., Smith, A. J. H., Staden, R., and Young, I. G., Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature290 (1981) 457–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ballinger, S. W., Schurr, T. G., Torroni, A., Gan, Y. Y., Hodge, J. A., Hassan, K., Chen, K.-H., and Wallace, D. C., Southeast Asian mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals genetic continuity of ancient Mongoloid migrations. Genetics130 (1992) 139–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doran, G. H., Dickel, D. N. Jr, W. E. B., Agee, O. F., Laipis, P. J., and Hauswirth, W. W., Anatomical, cellular and molecular analysis of 8,000-year-old human brain tissue from the Windover archaeological site. Nature323 (1986) 803–806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ewens, W. J., The sampling theory of selectively neutral alleles. Theor. Popul. Biol.3 (1972) 87–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ferrell, R. E., Bertin, T., Barton, S. A., Rothhammer, F., and Schull, W. T., The multinational Andean genetic and health program. IX. Gene frequencies and rare variants of 20 serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes in the Aymara of Chile. Am. J. hum. Genet.32 (1980) 92–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ginther, C., Corach, D., Penacino, G. A., Rey, J. A., Carnese, F. R., Hutz, M. H., Anderson, A., Just, J., Salzano, F. M., and King, M.-C., Genetic Variation among the Mapuche Indians from the Patagonian region of Argentina: Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and allele frequencies of several nuclear genes, in: DNA Fingerprinting: State of the Science, pp. 211–219. Eds S. D. J. Pena, R. Chakraborty, J. T. Epplen and A. J. Jeffreys. Birkhäuser, Verlag, Basel 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenberg, J. H., The General Classification of Central and South American Indian Languages, in: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. A. F. C. Wallace. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1960.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenberg, J. H., Language in the Americas. California Stanford University Press, Palo Alto 1987.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greenberg, J. H., Turner, C. G., II, and Zegura, S. L., The settlement of the Americas: A comparison of linguistic dental and genetic evidence. Curr. Anthrop.27 (1986) 477–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harihara, S., Momoki, H., Suutou, Y., Shimizu, K., and Omoto, K., Frequency of the 9-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA among Asian populations. Hum. Biol.64 (1992) 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hertzberg, M., Mickleson, K. N. P., Serjeanston, S. W., Prior, J. F., and Trent, R. J., An Asian specific 9-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA is frequently found in Polynesians. Am. J. hum. Genet.44 (1989) 504–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Horai, S., Kondo, R., Nakagawa-Hattori, Y., Hayasaki, S., Sonoda, S., and Tajima, K., Peopling of the Americas, founded by four major lineages of mitochondrial DNA. Molec. Biol. Evol.10(1) (1993) 23–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson, M. J., Wallace, D. C., Ferris, S. D., Rattazzi, M. C., and Cavalli-Svorza, L. L., Radiation of human mitochondrial DNA types analyzed by restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns. J. molec. Evol.19 (1983) 255–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Laughlin, W. S., and Harper, A. B. (Eds) The First Americans: Origins, Affinities, and Adaptations. Gustav Fischer, New York 1979.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lorenz, J. G., and Smith, D. G., Distribution of the 9-bp mitochondrial DNA Region V deletion among North American Indians. Hum. Biol. (1994) in press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Merriwether, D. A., Mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence variation in Native South Americans. Am. Soc. hum. Genet. (1993).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Merriwether, D. A., Mitochondrial DNA Variation in South American Indians (1993) University of Pittsburgh, Ph.D. Disseration.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Merriwether, D. A., Clark, A. G., Ballinger, S. W., Schurr, T. G., Soodyall, H., Jenkins, T., Sherry, S. T., and Wallace, D. C., The structure of human mitochondrial DNA variation. J. molec. Evol.33 (1991) 543–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merriwether, D. A., Rothhammer, F., and Ferrell, R. E., Mitochondrial DNA variation in ancient and contemporary Amerindians using the tRNALYS-COII deletion and diagnostic restriction sites. Am. J. hum. Genet.51(4) (1992) A13.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merriwether, D. A., Rothhammer, F., and Ferrell, R. E., Distribution of the four-founding lineage haplotypes in Native Americans suggests a single wave of migration for the New World. Hum. molec. Genet. (1994) submitted.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pääbo, S., Gifford, J. A., and Wilson, A. C., Mitochondrial DNA sequences from a 7000-year old brain. Nucl. Acids Res.16(20) (1988) 9775–9787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pääbo, S., Higuchi, R. G., and Wilson, A. C., Ancient DNA and the polymerase chain reaction. J. biol. Chem.264 (1989) 9709–9712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rogan, P. K., and Salvo, J. J., Molecular genetics of pre-Columbian South American mummies. Molec. Cell. Biol.122 (1990) 223–234.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saiki, R. K., Gelfland, D. H., Stoffel, S., Scharf, S. J., Higuchi, R., Horn, G. T., Mullis, K. B., and Erlich, H. A., Primerdirected enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science239 (1988) 487–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schurr, T. G., Ballinger, S. W., Gan, Y. Y., Hodge, J. A., Merriwether, D. A., Lawrence, D. N., Knowler, W. C., Weiss, K. M., and Wallace, D. C., Amerindian mitochondrial DNAs have rare Asian mutations at high frequencies suggesting a limited number of founders. Am. J. hum. Genet.46 (1990) 613–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shields, G. F., Hecker, K., Voevoda, M. I., and Reed, J. K., Absence of the Asian-spacific region V mitochondrial marker in Native Beringians. Am. J. hum. Genet.50 (1992) 758–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shields, G. F., Schmiechen, A. M., Frazier, B. L., Redd, A., Voevoda, M. I., Reed, J. K., and Ward, R. H., mtDNA sequences suggest a recent evolutionary divergence for Beringian and Northern North American populations. Am. J. hum. Genet.53(3) (1993) 549–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shutler, R. Jr, (Ed.) Early Man in the New World. Sage Publications, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA 1983.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stone, A. C., and Stoneking, M., Ancient DNA from a pre-Columbian Amerindian population. Am. J. phys. Anthrop.92 (1994) 463–471.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Szathmary, E. J. E., Genetic markers in Siberian and northern North American populations. Yb. phys. Anthrop.24 (1981) 37–73.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Szathmary, E. J. E., mtDNA and the peopling of the Americas. Am. J. hum. Genet.53 (1993) 793–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tajima, F., Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics123 (1989) 585–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Torroni, A., Schurr, T. G., Cabell, M. F., Brown, M. D., Neel, J. V., Larsen, M., Smith, D. G., Vullo, C. M., and Wallace, D. C., Asian affinities and continental radiation of the four founding Native American mitochondrial DNAs. Am. J. hum. Genet.53 (1993) 563–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Torroni, A., Schurr, T. G., Yang, C.-C., Szathmary, E. J. E., Williams, R. C., Schanfield, M. S., Troup, G. A., Knowler, W. C., Lawrence, D. N., Weiss, K. M., and Wallace, D. C., Native American mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that the Amerind and the NaDene populations were founded by two independent migrations. Genetics130 (1992) 153–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Torroni, A., Sukernik, R. I., Schurr, T. G., Starikovskaya, Y. B., Cabell, M. F., Crawford, M. H., Comuzzie, A. G., and Wallace, D. C., Mitochondrial DNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct affinities with Native Americans. Am. J. hum. Genet.53 (1993) 591–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wallace, D. C., Garrison, K., and Knowler, W. C., Dramatic founder effects in Amerindian mitochondrial DNAs. Am. J. phys. Anthrop.68 (1985) 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wallace, D. C., and Torroni, A., American Indian prehistory as written in the mitochondrial DNA: A review. Hum. Biol.64(3) (1992) 403–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ward, R. H., Frazier, B. L., Dew-Jager, K., and Pääbo, S., Extensive mitochondrial diversity within a single Amerindian tribe. Proc. natl Acad. Sci. USA88 (1991) 8720–8724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ward, R. H., Redd, A., Valencia, D., Frazier, B., and Pääbo, S., Genetic and linguistic differentiation in the Americas. Proc. natl Acad. Sci. USA90 (1993) 10663–10667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Watterson, G. A., The homozygosity test of neutrality. Genetics88 (1978) 405–417.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Watterson, G. A., Allele frequencies after a bottleneck. Theor. Popul. Biol.26 (1984) 387–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Merriwether
    • 1
  • F. Rothhammer
    • 2
  • R. E. Ferrell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human GeneticsUniversity of PittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cell Biology and GeneticsUniversity of ChileSantiago(Chile)

Personalised recommendations