Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback

Abstract

Efferent motor signals to skeletal muscles concern not only the space/time pattern of motion, but also the setting of muscular performance and through this the control of the current metabolic rate. For an optimal adjustment of metabolic rate during heavy exercise — e.g. in athletic competitions — a feedback control system must exist, including a programmer that takes into consideration a finishing point (teleoanticipation). The presented experiments, using Borg's scale, indicate the existence and functioning of a system for optimal adjustment of performance during heavy exercise and the relevance of teleoanticipatory effects. Thus motor learning includes not only somatosensory control, but also metabolic control. With regard to migratory birds, such metabolic control would have to operate in the individual as well as in the migrating flock as a whole.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    Newsholme, E. A., and Blomstrand, E., The plasma level of some amino acids and physical and mental fatigue. Experientia52 (1996) 413–415.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Ulmer, H.-V., Perceived exertion as a part of a feedback system and its interaction with tactical behaviour in endurance sports, in: The Perception of Exertion in Physical Work. Wenner-Gren Int. Symp. Ser., vol. 46, pp. 317–326. Eds G. Borg and D. Ottoson. Macmillan Press Ltd. Houndsmills-Basingstoke, Hampshire and London 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Borg, G., Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand. J. Rehab. Med.2 (1970) 92–98.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Borg, G. (ed.), Physical Work and Effort. Pergamon Press Oxford-New York-Toronto-Sydney-Paris-Frankfurt 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Borg, G., and Ottoson, D. (eds), The Perception of Exertion in Physical Work. Wenner-Gren Int. Symp. Ser., vol. 46. Macmillan Press Ltd. Houndmills-Basingstoke, Hampshire and London 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Ulmer, H.-V., Janz, U., and Löllgen, H., Aspects of the validity of Borg's scale. Is it measuring stress or strain? in: Physical Work and Effort, pp. 181–196. Ed. G. Borg, Wenner-Gren-Center, Int. Symp. Ser. vol 28. Pergamon Press, Oxford-New York-Toronto-Sydney-Paris-Frankfurt 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Edwards, R. T. H., Melcher, A., Hesser, G. M., Wiggertz, O., and Ekelund, L. G., Physiological correlates of perceived exertion in continuous and intermittent exercise with the same average output. Eur. J. clin. Invest.2 (1972) 108–114.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Wastl, P., Ulmer, H.-V., and Deforth, J., Leistungsempfinden und Taktik beim 800- und 1.500-m-Lauf. Leistungssport12 (1982) 378–382.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Weiland, E., Leistungsschätzen und Leistungsempfinden (Borg-Skala) beim 100-m-Brustschwimmen der Frauen. Staatsexamensarbeit, FB 26 der Universität Mainz, Mainz 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Glomski, M., Fortbewegungsgeschwindigkeit und Bewegungsfrequenz am Beispiel des Schwimmsports. Staatsexamensarbeit, FB 26 der Universität Mainz, Mainz 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Wippersteg, D., Anstrengungsschätzen und empfinden (Borg-Skala) beim 400-m-Brustschwimmen. Diplomarbeit, FB 26 der Universität Mainz, Mainz 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Ulmer, H.-V., and Wiesberg, K., Einteilung des Leistungseinsatzes bei vorgegebenen Anstrengungsgraden (Borg-Skala). Z. Arb. wiss.32 (4 NF) (1978) 77–80.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Billigmann, P., Zur Selbsteinteilung körperlicher Anstrengung während einstündiger Ergometerarbeit bei Vorgabe bestimmter Anstrengungsgrade anhand der Borg-Skala. Dissertation, Mainz 1980.

  14. 14

    Ulmer, H.-V., and Schulze, H., Zeitbezogene Zielantizipation als Teil motorischen Lernens bei 1 bis 10-minütiger Haltearbeit, in: Motodiagnostik-Mototherapie, pp. 311–315. Eds H.-Ch. Scholle, A. Struppler, H.-J. Freund, H. Hefder, and N. P. Schumann, Universitätsverlag Jena, Jena 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Ulmer, H.-V., Zur Komplexität menschlicher Zielmotorik bei Ausdauerleistungen, in: Motorik und Bewegungsforschung pp. 62–67. Ed. Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft. Hofmann Schorndorf 1983.

  16. 16

    Ulmer, H.-V., Zur Komplexität der Zielmotorik bei Ausdauer- und Haltearbeit, in: Motodiagnostik — Mototherapie — Arbeitstagung (Dornburger Schloßgespräche), pp. 151–156. Eds H.-Ch. Scholle and G. Mühlau. Universitätsverlag Jena, Jena 1992.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ulmer, H.-. Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback. Experientia 52, 416–420 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01919309

Download citation

Key words

  • Borg's scale
  • extracellular metabolic regulation
  • metabolic control
  • motor control
  • motor learning
  • psychophysiological feedback
  • RPE-scale
  • teleoanticipation