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Expectations and realities of dutch immigration to Palestine/Israel after the shoah

  • Chaya Brasz
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Keywords

Dutch Immigration 
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Abbreviations

Arch. I.O.H.

Archives of the Irgun Olei Holland at the Institute for Research on Dutch Jewry

C.Z.A.

Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem

I.D.J.

Institute for Research on Dutch Jewry, Hebrew University

R.I.O.D.

The Institute for War Documentation, Amsterdam

Y.V.

Yad Vashem

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Notes

  1. 1.
    J.C.H. Blom, “The Persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands in a Comparative International Perspective,” in J. Michman, ed.,Dutch Jewish History (Jerusalem: I.D.J., 1986), 273–91.Google Scholar
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    I. Brasz, m.m.v J. Hagen, “Bevrijdingsjaren — Jaren van Bevrijding?” in T. Benima and F. Hoogewoud, ed.,Le-Ezrath Ha-Am - Het Volk ter Hulpe (Van Gorcum, Assen, 1985), XVIII. Other studies on the Jews in post-war Holland: D. Hondius,Terugkeer, Antisemitisme in Nederland rond de bevrijding (Den Haag, 1990); J. Fishman, “Jewish war orphans in the Netherlands: the Guardianship Issue, 1945–1950,”Wiener Library Bulletin 27 (1973/4), 31–36; “The Anneke Beekman Affair and the Dutch News Media,”Jewish Social Studies 40 (1978): 3–24; J. Fishman, “The Jewish community in Post-War Netherlands, 1944–1975,”Midstream 22 (1976): 42–54; “The Reconstruction of the Dutch Jewish Community and its implications for the writing of contemporary Jewish History,”Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 45 (1978): 67–101; J. Fishman, “The Ecumenical Challenge of Jewish Survival. Pastor Kalma and Post-War Dutch Society,”Journal of Ecumenical Studies 15 (1978): 461–76; J. Fishman, “The War Orphan Controversy in the Netherlands: Majority-Minority Relations,” in J. Michman and T. Levie, ed.,Dutch Jewish History (January, 1984), 421–32; C. Kristel, “De moeizame terugkeer: de repatriering van de Nederlandse overlevenden uit de Duitse concentratiekampen,”Jaarboek van het R.I.O.D. (Amsterdam, 1989); J. Michman, “The Problem of the Jewish war orphans in Holland,”She'erith Hapletah, 1944–1948. Rehabilitation and Political Struggle (Jerusalem, 1990) [English and Hebrew]; E. Verhey,Om het joodse kind (Amsterdam, 1991).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Benima and F. Hoogewoud, ed.,Le-Ezrath Ha-Am. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, de ontstaansgeschiedenis van de Nederlandse Immigrantenvereniging in Israel (Jerusalem, 1993).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossier on organizations in countries other than Palestine.Google Scholar
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  7. 7.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Protocols of the Board and of other meetings, 1944–45.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Benima and F. Hoogewoud, ed.Le-Ezrath Ha-Am, XXII.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    With militant Zionists they meant the chairman A. de Jong and treasurer J. van Amerongen, who indeed had been active Zionists before the war. Van Amerongen was chosen to be chairperson of the Zionistenbond when it was re-established. He did not see any future in the Netherlands. He was director of the Ministry of Finance and after retiring he was one of the first Israelis to travel to Tunis and speak with P.L.O. leader Yasser Arafat. De Jong became inspector of Tanach education in non-religious schools in Israel.Google Scholar
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    T. Benima and F. Hoogewoud ed.,Le-Ezrath Ha-Am, XXXIII–XXXVIII.Google Scholar
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    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 57–72.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The history of the exchange has been described from different viewpoints and in different sources. Some writers concentrate on the activities in Geneva and completely ignore what was done in Palestine. Others do the opposite. As a result, most writers present an incomplete picture. Oppenheim was the first who made use of German sources as well, which led to new discoveries. C. Brasz, “Rescue Attempts by the Dutch Jewish Community in Palestine, 1940–1945,” in J. Michman, ed.,Dutch Jewish History 3 (Jerusalem, 1993), 339–52; M. Gilbert,From Bergen Belsen to Freedom: the story of the exchange of Jewish inmates of Bergen Belsen with German Templars from Palestine (Jerusalem: Y.V., 1986); B. Hummel, “De derde Duits-Palestijnse Uitwisseling of Hoe 281 Joden in Juli 1944 gered werden,” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Groningen, partly based on Oppenheim's material, 1987) [in Dutch]; E. Kolb,Bergen Belsen (Hanover, 1962) [in German]; H. Mainz, “Erlebnisse 1940–1944” (Zichron Ya'akov, 1944) [in German]; A.N. Oppenheim, “The Chosen People” (London, 1986); G. van Tijn, “Bijdrage tot de Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland van 10 mei 1940 tot juni 1944” (Nahariya, 1944) [in English and Dutch]; S. de Wolff,Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland: Laatste Bedrijf (Amsterdam, 1964) [in Dutch]; R. Zariz, “The Rescue of Dutch Jews by Means of Certificates” [in Hebrew]: Moreshet (1977) 135–62; idem, untitled, in M. Gilbert,From Bergen Belsen to Freedom, 14–27.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Enquêtecommissie voor het Regeringsbeleid 1940–1945, vol. 6a and 6b ('s-Gravenhage, 1950), 189–95; C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 55–6; C. Brasz, “Rescue Attempts,” 347–48.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. De Jong,Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede wereldoorlog, vol. 8, tweede helft 953–59;Enquêtecommissie voor het Regeringsbeleid 1940–1945, 643–52. See also, C.Z.A. J24/69, Report on conversation Dr. L. Cohn and M. de Leeuw 23.3.44.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Verhey,Om het Joodse Kind (Amsterdam, 1991), 52, 54 and 69; See also Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.). Dossier on organizations in countries other than Palestine.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    See literature under note 3.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 62; C.Z.A. J24/16 and J24/209.Google Scholar
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    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Letters and reports written by De Leeuw during his stay in Holland and Protocols of the I.O.H.; C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 66–72.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    I.D.J., Arch. Beth Joles; C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 68.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Letters and reports written by De Leeuw during his stay in Holland and Protocols of the I.O.H.; C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 66–72; C.Z.A. J24/21.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    L. Giebels,De Zionistische Beweging in Nederland 1899–1941 (Assen, 1975), 171; T. Benima and F. Hoogewoud, ed.,Le-Ezrath Ha-Am, XXXIV.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.L. Schorr, “The Netherlands,”American Jewish Yearbook 49 (5708/1947–8): 332.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    I.D.J., Arch I.O.H. (uninv.), Dossier onHalutzim 1944, Guine and Nyassa; C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 54–5; C.Z.A. J24/28; J24/213; J24/215; J24/216; J24/171; J24/181; J24/187.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Protocols of May and June 1944.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 58.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossier on post-war correspondence with the Jewish Agency.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    See literature under note 3.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossier on correspondence with the Jewish Agency and reports on meetings with J.A. representatives. C.Z.A. S6/3726 and S6/1934.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossier on post-war correspondence with Jewish Agency.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
    De Joden in Nederland na de tweede wereldoorlog, een demografische analyse, Commissie voor Demografie der Joden in Nederland (Amsterdam, 1961); Ph. van Praag,Demografie van de Joden in Nederland (Uitkomsten en evaluatie van een telling van de Joden in Nederland per 1 januari 1966), Commissie voor Demografie der Joden in Nederland (Assen, 1971); “Dutch Jewry: A demographic analysis,” reprinted fromThe Jewish Journal of Sociology 3, 2 (1961) and 5,1 (1962). There is no recent demographic research available in the Netherlands as a result of serious opposition inside the Jewish community and a general negative attitude in the Netherlands against registration, especially separate registration of ethnic or religious minorities. This attitude is a reaction to what happened to the Jews during the war as a result of the perfect Dutch registration systems.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    L. Giebels,De Zionistische Beweging in Nederland 1899–1941, 171.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Immigration to Israel 1992,” Special publication no. 944, (Jerusalem: Israeli Bureau for Statistics, 1992).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. Mededeeling III, juni 1941. This speaks about the 1,000 to 1,200 Dutchmen in Palestine, which probably included non-Jews who lived in Palestine for reasons other than Zionism; C.Z.A. J24/29, document of 21/7/1940 speaks about 200 families.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.).Lists.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Della Pergola, “Some occupational characteristics of Western Jews in Israel,” in U.O. Schmelz, ed.,Papers on Jewish Demography, proceedings of the demographic sessions held at the 7th World Congress of Jewish Studies (Jerusalem, 1977); P. Glikson and S. Della Pergola (Jerusalem: Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, 1980).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A cousin of Siegfried Hoofien, M. David, of Haifa, did the research. It was never published, but the results look reliable since they are in accordance with other material; many people in those days knew exactly their number among those who had come. A. de Leeuw declared, for example, that he was number 17. He came in 1924.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    N. Efrati, “Eliezer Siegfried Hoofien, Director of.the A.P.C.: His Role within the Yishuv during World War I and its Aftermath,” in J. Michman, ed.,Dutch Jewish History 2, (Jerusalem: I.D.J., 1989), 219–35.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    V.E. van Vriesland, a.o.,Siegfried Van Vriesland, 2 May 1886 - 4 December 1939 (Jerusalem, 1940).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ibid., 25.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 3. The number of 300halutzim was mentioned in “15 Jaar Chaloets-werk, Vereeniging tot Vakopleiding van Palestinapioniers, 1933,” 4. See also annual reports from previous years.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
    J. Michman, ed.,Mehkarim al Toldot Yahadut Holland 2, dedicated to the memory of F. Bernstein (Jerusalem: I.D.J., 1979).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 69–70.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abraham. A. Weinberg, “Psychosociology of the Immigrant: “An investigation into the problems of adjustment of Jewish immigrants into Palestine based on replies to an enquiry conducted among immigrants from Holland,”Social Studies (Jerusalem: The Israel Institute of Folklore and Ethnology, 1949) [in Hebrew and English].Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Het eerste jaar van Hachsjarah en Alijah, verslag van de verrichtingen van de Stichting voor Opleiding en Uitzending van Palestinapioniers, “Hachsjarah en Alijah” over de periode juli 1945 tot en met september 1946. (Amsterdam, 1946). See also the following years; I.D.J., Arch.Halutzim, IV-D and IV-C; Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) on post-warHachsharah; C.Z.A. J24/21.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Reports and letters on Werkdorp Wieringermeer; C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 69; C. Brasz, “Vreemdelingendienst maakte herbouw van Werkdorp Wieringermeer onmogelijk,”Nieuw Iraëlietisch Weekblad, 4/5/1990; I.D.J., Arch.Halutzim. I-Bnos. 17 and 18; C.Z.A. J24/16; J24/18; J24/209.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
    J. Voet told me this in August 1993 in Jerusalem. See also J. Voet, “Verplaatste Personen (Displaced Persons),”Mens & Maatschappij (1948), 1–18.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 64; I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossiers on post-warhachsharah andhalutzim. Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    “Dutch Jewry: a demographic analysis,” reprinted fromThe Jewish Journal of Sociology, 3, 2 (1961) and 5, 1 (1962): 56.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 64–65.; I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossier on illegal immigration.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 70; C.Z.A. J24/189 A 1038, Report I.O.H. over 1949.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    De Joodse Wachter, 43e jrg, no. 23, 7 November 1952.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ibid. no. 26, 5 December 1952.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 70;Jerusalem Post, 6 July 1955.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jaarverslag met bijlagen van het Bondsbestuur van de Nederlandsche Zionistenbond, dec 1955; See also previous and later years.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Annual reports of the Irgun Olei Holland.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ibid. The late Robert Cohen was part of this post-war aliya wave. He was born in 1946 and came to Israel in 1966.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Immigration to Israel, 1992, special series no. 944, (Jerusalem, 1992).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Population and Housing Census of 1961 and 1972. Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Population and Housing Census of 1983. Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Still unpublished data on 1992.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Composition by Period of Immigration, special series no. 489 (Jerusalem, 1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Haifa University Press 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaya Brasz
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hebrew University of JerusalemIsrael

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