Expectations and realities of dutch immigration to Palestine/Israel after the shoah

  • Chaya Brasz


Dutch Immigration 
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Arch. I.O.H.

Archives of the Irgun Olei Holland at the Institute for Research on Dutch Jewry


Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem


Institute for Research on Dutch Jewry, Hebrew University


The Institute for War Documentation, Amsterdam


Yad Vashem


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  1. 1.
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    With militant Zionists they meant the chairman A. de Jong and treasurer J. van Amerongen, who indeed had been active Zionists before the war. Van Amerongen was chosen to be chairperson of the Zionistenbond when it was re-established. He did not see any future in the Netherlands. He was director of the Ministry of Finance and after retiring he was one of the first Israelis to travel to Tunis and speak with P.L.O. leader Yasser Arafat. De Jong became inspector of Tanach education in non-religious schools in Israel.Google Scholar
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    The history of the exchange has been described from different viewpoints and in different sources. Some writers concentrate on the activities in Geneva and completely ignore what was done in Palestine. Others do the opposite. As a result, most writers present an incomplete picture. Oppenheim was the first who made use of German sources as well, which led to new discoveries. C. Brasz, “Rescue Attempts by the Dutch Jewish Community in Palestine, 1940–1945,” in J. Michman, ed.,Dutch Jewish History 3 (Jerusalem, 1993), 339–52; M. Gilbert,From Bergen Belsen to Freedom: the story of the exchange of Jewish inmates of Bergen Belsen with German Templars from Palestine (Jerusalem: Y.V., 1986); B. Hummel, “De derde Duits-Palestijnse Uitwisseling of Hoe 281 Joden in Juli 1944 gered werden,” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Groningen, partly based on Oppenheim's material, 1987) [in Dutch]; E. Kolb,Bergen Belsen (Hanover, 1962) [in German]; H. Mainz, “Erlebnisse 1940–1944” (Zichron Ya'akov, 1944) [in German]; A.N. Oppenheim, “The Chosen People” (London, 1986); G. van Tijn, “Bijdrage tot de Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland van 10 mei 1940 tot juni 1944” (Nahariya, 1944) [in English and Dutch]; S. de Wolff,Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland: Laatste Bedrijf (Amsterdam, 1964) [in Dutch]; R. Zariz, “The Rescue of Dutch Jews by Means of Certificates” [in Hebrew]: Moreshet (1977) 135–62; idem, untitled, in M. Gilbert,From Bergen Belsen to Freedom, 14–27.Google Scholar
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    I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. Mededeeling III, juni 1941. This speaks about the 1,000 to 1,200 Dutchmen in Palestine, which probably included non-Jews who lived in Palestine for reasons other than Zionism; C.Z.A. J24/29, document of 21/7/1940 speaks about 200 families.Google Scholar
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  44. 44.
    A cousin of Siegfried Hoofien, M. David, of Haifa, did the research. It was never published, but the results look reliable since they are in accordance with other material; many people in those days knew exactly their number among those who had come. A. de Leeuw declared, for example, that he was number 17. He came in 1924.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    N. Efrati, “Eliezer Siegfried Hoofien, Director of.the A.P.C.: His Role within the Yishuv during World War I and its Aftermath,” in J. Michman, ed.,Dutch Jewish History 2, (Jerusalem: I.D.J., 1989), 219–35.Google Scholar
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    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 3. The number of 300halutzim was mentioned in “15 Jaar Chaloets-werk, Vereeniging tot Vakopleiding van Palestinapioniers, 1933,” 4. See also annual reports from previous years.Google Scholar
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    Abraham. A. Weinberg, “Psychosociology of the Immigrant: “An investigation into the problems of adjustment of Jewish immigrants into Palestine based on replies to an enquiry conducted among immigrants from Holland,”Social Studies (Jerusalem: The Israel Institute of Folklore and Ethnology, 1949) [in Hebrew and English].Google Scholar
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    Het eerste jaar van Hachsjarah en Alijah, verslag van de verrichtingen van de Stichting voor Opleiding en Uitzending van Palestinapioniers, “Hachsjarah en Alijah” over de periode juli 1945 tot en met september 1946. (Amsterdam, 1946). See also the following years; I.D.J., Arch.Halutzim, IV-D and IV-C; Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) on post-warHachsharah; C.Z.A. J24/21.Google Scholar
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    J. Voet told me this in August 1993 in Jerusalem. See also J. Voet, “Verplaatste Personen (Displaced Persons),”Mens & Maatschappij (1948), 1–18.Google Scholar
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    “Dutch Jewry: a demographic analysis,” reprinted fromThe Jewish Journal of Sociology, 3, 2 (1961) and 5, 1 (1962): 56.Google Scholar
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    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 64–65.; I.D.J., Arch. I.O.H. (uninv.) Dossier on illegal immigration.Google Scholar
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    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 70; C.Z.A. J24/189 A 1038, Report I.O.H. over 1949.Google Scholar
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    De Joodse Wachter, 43e jrg, no. 23, 7 November 1952.Google Scholar
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    Ibid. no. 26, 5 December 1952.Google Scholar
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    C. Brasz,Irgoen Olei Holland, 70;Jerusalem Post, 6 July 1955.Google Scholar
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    Annual reports of the Irgun Olei Holland.Google Scholar
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    Ibid. The late Robert Cohen was part of this post-war aliya wave. He was born in 1946 and came to Israel in 1966.Google Scholar
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    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Immigration to Israel, 1992, special series no. 944, (Jerusalem, 1992).Google Scholar
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    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Population and Housing Census of 1961 and 1972. Google Scholar
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    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Population and Housing Census of 1983. Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Still unpublished data on 1992.Google Scholar
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    Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,Composition by Period of Immigration, special series no. 489 (Jerusalem, 1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Haifa University Press 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaya Brasz
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hebrew University of JerusalemIsrael

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