Advertisement

Basic Research in Cardiology

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 220–229 | Cite as

The effect of vasoactive drugs on the low-pressure system

  • K. Kirsch
  • A. Ameln
  • H. J. Wicke
Original Contributions
  • 16 Downloads

Summary

In the present study emphasis was placed on the circulatory pattern of the low-pressure system when sodium nitroprusside (Na-NP) as vasodilatator and norepinephrine (NE) as a vasoconstrictive agent were given to anesthetized dogs. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, peripheral venous pressure and plasma volume were measured. 12 animals received Na-NP and 11 animals received NE infusions which lasted between 80 and 90 min. The respective dosages were on the average 7.8 μg·kg−1·min−1 and 1.16 μg·kg−1·min−1.

Under Na-NP a marked fall in the mean arterial pressure and the total peripheral resistance was observed (p<0.01). In view of an unchanged plasma volume the decrease in central venous pressure by 1.5 mm Hg (p<0.01) together with an unchanged peripheral venous pressure must be interpreted as being due to a translocation of blood volume from intra- to extrathoracic parts of the low-pressure system. A close correlation between the central venous pressure and the total peripheral resistance was found, which support the interpretation given above.

Under NE, besides an increase in the mean arterial pressure, an average increase in the peripheral venous pressure was consistently found (averge +1 mm Hg, p>0.01). The relatively small increase in the central venous pressure must be attributed to the simultaneously occurring fall in plasma volume which prevented an augmentation of the cardiac filling pressure.

Keywords

Venous Pressure Central Venous Pressure Plasma Volume Nitroprusside Sodium Nitroprusside 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Der Einfluß vasoaktiver Substanzen auf das Niederdrucksystem

Zusammenfassung

In den vorliegenden Untersuchungen wurde an narkotisierten Hunden das Verhalten des Niederdrucksystems unter den Gaben von Natrium-Nitro-Prussid (Na-NP) und Norepinephrin (NE) eingehend beschrieben. Dabei wurden neben dem zentralen Venendruck, dem peripheren Venendruck (Vena cava abdominalis) und dem Plasmavolumen der arterielle Mitteldruck und das Herzminutenvolumen bestimmt. 12 Tiere erhielten Na-NP-Infusionen (mittlere Dosis 7,8 μg·kg−1·min−1 und 11 Tiere NE-Infusionen (mittlere Dosis 1,16 μg·kg−1·min−1) über eine Dauer von 80 bis 90 Minuten.

Unter Na-NP wurde erwartungsgemäß ein deutlicher Abfall des arteriellen Mitteldruckes und des totalen peripheren Widerstandes beobachtet (p<0,01). Ebenso fiel der zentrale Venendruck um 1,5 mm Hg ab (p<0,01), wohingegen der periphere Venendruck unverändert blieb. Da das Plasmavolumen konstant blieb, müssen die Veränderungen insgesamt als Ausdruck einer Blutvolumenverlagerung von intra- nach extrathorakal gedeutet werden. Die enge Korrelation zwischen den Veränderungen des zentralen Venendruckes und denjenigen des totalen peripheren Widerstandes unterstützt diese Interpretation.

Unter NE wurde neben einem Anstieg des arteriellen Mitteldruckes regelmäßig ein Anstieg des peripheren Venendrucks gefunden (+1 mm Hg, p<0,1). Demgegenüber war der Anstieg des zentralen Venendruckes nur gering, was auf die gleichzeitig beobachtete Abnahme des Plasmavolumens zurückzuführen gewesen sein dürfte.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bhatia, S. K., E. D. Frohlich: Hemodynamic comparison of agents useful in hypertensive emergencies. Amer. Heart J.85, 367 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bleifeld, W., P. Hanrath: Die hämodynamische Basis der Therapie des akuten Myokardinfarktes. Dtsch. med. Wschr.100, 1345 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brecher, G. A.: Venous Return. (New York, London 1965).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohn, J. N.: Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensin in man. Clin. Sci.30, 267 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Finnerty, F. A. jr.,J. H. Buchholz, R. L. Guillanden: The blood volumes and plasma protein during levarterenol-induced hypertension. J. clin. Invest.37, 425 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gauer, O. H., J. P. Henry: Circulatory basis of fluid volume control. Physiol. Rev.43, 423 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gauer, O. H., H. L. Thron: Properties of veins in vivo: integrated effects of their smooth muscle. Physiol. Rev.42, Suppl. 5, 283 (1962).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guiha, N. H., C. J. Limas, J. A. Franciosa, J. N. Cohn: Treatment of refractory heart failure with sodium nitroprusside. Circulation46, Suppl. 2–105 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hess, W., J. Tarnow, D. Patschke, J. Passian, J. B. Brückner: Hämodynamik und Sauerstoffversorgung des Herzens bei kontrollierter Hypotension mit Natriumnitroprussid und Trimethaphan. Der Anaesthesist25, 27 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Holt, J. P.: The effect of positive and negative intra-thoracic pressure on peripheral venous pressure in man. Amer. J. Physiol.139, 208 (1943).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kerr, A. R., J. W. Kirklin: Changes in canine venous volume and pressure during hemorrhage. Surgery68, 520 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirsch, K., K. Hrynyschyn, H. v. Ameln, L. Röcker, H. J. Wicke: Extracellular fluid volume and central circulation after long lasting exercise and dehydration in conscious dogs. Pflügers Arch.368, 209 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kreye, V. A. W., G. D. Baron, J. B. Lüth, H. Schmidt-Gayk: Mode of action of sodium nitroprusside on vascular smooth muscle. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol.288, 381 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krug, H., L. Schlicher: Die Dynamik des venösen Rückstromes (Leipzig 1960).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mellander, S.: Comparative studies on the adrenergic neurohormonal control of resistance and capacitance blood vessels in the cat. Acta physiol. Scand.50, Suppl. 176, 1 (1960).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mellander, S.: Comparative effects of acetylcholine, butyl-norsynephrine (vasculat), noradrenaline, and ethyl-adrianol (effontil) on resistance, capacitance, and precapillary sphincter vessels and capillary filtration in cat skeletal muscle. Angiologica3, 77 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller, R. R., L. A. Vismara, R. Zelis, E. A. Amsterdam, D. T. Mason: Clinical use of sodium nitroprusside in chronic ischemic heart disease. Effects on peripheral vascular resistance and venous tone and on ventricular volume, pump and mechanical performance. Circulation51, 328 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Öberg, B.: The relationship between active constriction and passive recoil of the veins at various distending pressures. Acta physiol. scand.71, 233 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Page, I. H., A. C. Corcoran, H. P. Dustan, Th. Koppanyi: Cardiovascular actions of sodium nitroprusside in animals and hypertensive patients. Circulation11, 188 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pappenheimer, J. R., A. Soto-Rivera: Effective osmotic pressure of the plasma proteins and other quantities associated with the capillary circulation in the hindlimbs of cats and dogs. Amer. J. Physiol.152, 471 (1948).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rashkind, W. J., D. H. Lewis, J. B. Henderson, D. F. Heiman, R. B. Dietrick: Venous return as affected by cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. Amer. J. Physiol.175, 415 (1953).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rose, J. C., E. D. Freis: Alterations in systemic vascular volume of the dog in response to hexamethonium and norepinephrine. Amer. J. Physiol.191, 283 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ross, G., P. V. Cole: Cardiovascular actions of sodium nitro prusside in dogs. Anaesthesia28, 400 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rowe, G. G., R. H. Henderson: Systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of sodium nitroprusside. Amer. Heart J.87, 83 (1974).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sachs, L.: Angewandte Statistik, Planung und Auswertung. Methoden und Modelle. 4. Aufl. (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1974).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shadle, O. W., J. C. Moore, D. M. Billig: Effect of 1-arterenol infusion and “central blood volume” in the dog. Circulat. Res.3, 385–389 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shepherd, J. T., P. M. Vanhoutte: Veins and their Control (London-Philadelphia-Toronto 1975).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Styles, M., A. J. Coleman, W. P. Leary: Some hemodynamic effects of sodium nitroprusside. Anaesthesiology38, 173 (1973).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sutter, M. C.: The pharmacology of isolated veins. Brit. J. Pharmacol.24, 742–751 (1965).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thron, H. L., B. Brinkhoff, P. Hoffmann: Das Druckverhalten in den zentralen und peripheren Abschnitten des Niederdrucksystems bei Blutvolumen-und Gefäßtonusveränderungen. Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Kreislaufforschg.37, 242 (1971).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Verhaeghe, R. H., J. T. Shepherd: Effect of nitroprusside on smooth muscle and adrenergic neutrotransmission in isolated blood vessels. Circulation51/52, Suppl. II-58 (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Kirsch
    • 1
  • A. Ameln
    • 1
  • H. J. Wicke
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PhysiologieFreie Universität BerlinBerlin 33

Personalised recommendations