Advertisement

Applied biological control with Tachinid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae): A review

  • S. Grenier
Article

Abstract

From the beginning of this century, tachinid flies have been involved in many operations of applied biological control against different insect pests. A review is done about utilization of Tachinidae all over the world. These parasitoid insects were used by inoculative, augmentative or inundative releases. Most of the operations were accomplished in the nearctic and neotropical regions. Sometimes great successes were obtained especially in North America and in tropical areas. Success or failure of release processes may be explained by different ways shortly analysed.

Keywords

Plant Physiology Plant Pathology Biological Control Insect Pest Release Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Résumé

Depuis le début de ce siècle, de très nombreuses espèces de Tachinaires ont été utilisées en lutte biologique dans presque toutes les parties du monde pour contrôler différents ravageurs des cultures et des forêts. Les Tachinaires ont fait l'objet de lâchers, introductif, augmentatif ou inondatif. La majorité des opérations a eu lieu dans les régions néartique et néotropicale. Très peu de lâchers ont été effectués dans la région paléarctique. Parfois des succès spectaculaires ont été obtenus, comme par exemple: —Compsilura concinnata etBlepharipa pratensis contre certains Lymantriidae nord-américains —Lixophaga diatraeae contre les Lépidoptères foreurs de la canne à sucre en Amérique tropicale —Bessa remota contre un Lépidoptère ravageur du cocotier aux îles Fidji. Les raisons permettant d'expliquer les succès ou les échecs sont brièvement analysées.

Zusammenfassung

Seit dem Beginn des Jahrhunderts wurden Tachiniden in zahlreichen Operationen der biologischen Schädlingsbekämpfung verwendet. Es wird ein Überblick der Tachiniden-Einsätze gegeben. Angewendet wurden die Impf-, Vermehrungs- und Überschwemmungsmethode. Die meisten Einsätze erfolgten in den nearktischen und neotropischen Regionen. Manchmal wurden große Erfolge erzielt, vor allem in Nordamerika und in tropischen Gebieten. Erfolge und Mißerfolge können sehr verschiedene Gründe haben, welche kurz analysiert werden.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Alam, M. M.;Bennett, F. D.;Carl, K. P., 1971: Biological control ofDiatraea saccharalis (F.) in Barbados byApanteles flavipes Cam. andLixophaga diatraeae T. Entomophaga16, 151–158.Google Scholar
  2. Allan, D. J.;Hill, M. G., 1984: Rearing and release ofBonnetia comta (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasite ofAgrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). New Zealand Entomol.8, 71–74.Google Scholar
  3. Andreadis, T. G., 1982: Current status of imported and native parasites of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Connecticut. J. Econ. Entomol.75, 626–629.Google Scholar
  4. Annecke, D. P.;Moran, V. C., 1977: Critical reviews of biological pest control in South Africa. 1- The Karoo caterpillar,Loxostege frustalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. ent. Soc. Sth. Afr.40, 127–145.Google Scholar
  5. Askew, R. R., 1971: Parasitic insects. Heinemann, London C. F. R. Woodward, 316p.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, W. A.;Bradley, W. G.;Clark, C. A., 1949: Biological control of the European corn borer in the United States. Techn. Bull. U. S. D. A.983, 1–185.Google Scholar
  7. Beg, M. N.;Bennett, F. D., 1974:Plagiprospherysa trinitatis (Dipt: Tachinidae), a parasite ofElasmopalpus lignosellus (Lep.: Phycitidae) in Trinidad, W.I. Entomophaga19, 331–340.Google Scholar
  8. Bennett, F. D.;Pschorn-Walcher, H., 1968: Recent investigations on the biological control ofDiatraea spp. in Trinidad, the Lesser Antilles and Barbados. I.S.S.C.T. Proceedings 13th Congress, Taiwan. Elsevier Publ., Amsterdam, 1321–1330.Google Scholar
  9. Blumenthal, E. M.;Fusco, R. A.;Reardon, R. C., 1979: Augmentative release of two established parasite species to suppress populations of the gypsy moth. J. Econ. Entomol.72, 281–288.Google Scholar
  10. Bonfils, J.;Galichet, P. F., 1974: Effets d'introductions renouvelées deLixophaga diatraeae (Diptera, Tachinidae) sur des populations naturelles du parasite et de son hôte,Diatraea saccharalis. Entomophaga19, 67–73.Google Scholar
  11. Boulet, A., 1986: Lutte biologique contre les «borers» de la canne à sucre en Martinique, exemple d'une intervention bien menée. Bull. techn. Info. Minist. Agri.409–411, 363–374.Google Scholar
  12. Breniere, J.;Pfeffer, P.;Betbeder-Matibet, M.;Etienne, J., 1966: Tentative d'introduction à Madagascar et à la Rèunion deDiatraeophaga striatalis, parasite deProceras sacchariphagus, «Borer ponctué» de la canne à sucre. Entomophaga11, 231–238.Google Scholar
  13. Burbutis, P. P.;Erwin, N.;Ertle, L. R., 1981: Reintroduction and establishment ofLydella thompsoni and notes on other parasites of the European corn borer in Delaware. Environ. Entomol.10, 779–781.Google Scholar
  14. Burrel, R. W., 1931:Dexia ventralis Aldrich, an imported parasite of the Japanese beetle. J. agric. Res.43, 323–336.Google Scholar
  15. Cameron, D. J.; Valentine, E. W.; Butcher, C. F., 1979: Prospects for biological control of pasture Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera) in New Zealand. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Australian Conference on Grassland Invertebrate Ecology. Ed. byT. K. Crosby, R. P. Pottinger. Wellington, 213–216.Google Scholar
  16. Cleare, L. D., 1939: The Amazon fly (Metagonistylum minense, Towns.) in British Guiana. Bull. Entomol. Res.30, 85–102.Google Scholar
  17. Coppel, H. C.;Mertins, J. W., 1977: Biological Insect Pest Suppression. Advanced series in agricultural Sciences 4 —Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 314 p.Google Scholar
  18. David, H., 1980: Tachinid parasites to control moth borers in India. In: Biological control of sugarcane pests in India. Ed. by Madras, Tamil Nadu State Feder. coop. sugar factories Ltd., Sithananthan S. & Solayappan A. R., 61–66.Google Scholar
  19. de Bach, P., 1964: Biological control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 844 p.Google Scholar
  20. de Bach, P., 1974: Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press, 323 p.Google Scholar
  21. Dupuis, C., 1963: Essai monographique sur les Phasiinae (Diptères Tachinaires) parasites d'Hétéroptères. Thèse doctorat, Paris no 4642, 461 p.Google Scholar
  22. Embree, D. G., 1971: The biological control of the winter moth in Eastern Canada by introduced parasites. In: Biological Control. Ed. byC. B. Huffaker, New York, 217–226.Google Scholar
  23. Etienne, J., 1971: Tentative d'implantation de deux espèces de tachinaires contreChilo sacchariphagus à la Réunion. Agron. Trop.26, 337–340.Google Scholar
  24. Etienne, J., 1973: Lutte biologique et aperçu sur les études entomologiques diverses effectuées ces dernières années à la Réunion. Agron. Trop.28, 683–687.Google Scholar
  25. Fusco, R. A.;Rhoads, L. D.;Blumenthal, M. 1978:Compsilura concinnata: effect of temperature on laboratory propagation. Environ. Entomol.7, 15–18.Google Scholar
  26. Galichet, P. F., 1975: Equilibres observés entre les populations des Tachinaires parasites du genreDiatraea en Guadeloupe (Antilles Françaises). Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (N. S.)11, 791–807.Google Scholar
  27. Greathead, D. J., 1986: Parasitoids in classical biological control. In: Insect parasitoids, Ed. byWaage andGreathead, Academic Press, London, 289–318.Google Scholar
  28. Grenier, S., 1986: Biologie et physiologie des relations hôtesparasitoïdes chez 3 Tachinaires (Diptera, Tachinidae) d'intérêt agronomique. Developpements en milieux artificiels —Lutte biologique. Thèse Doctorat Etat ès Sciences, LyonIDE 8604, 1–156.Google Scholar
  29. Gross, H. R. Jr;Pair, S. D., 1986: The fall armyworm: status and expectations of biological control with parasitoids and predators. Florida Entomol.69, 502–515.Google Scholar
  30. Hassel, M. P., 1980: Foraging strategies, population models and biological control: a case study. J. animal Ecol.49, 603–628.Google Scholar
  31. Herting, B., 1974: Les Tachinaires. In: Les organismes auxiliaires en vergers de pommiers. O.I.L.B.-S.R.O.P.3, 171–185.Google Scholar
  32. Hokkanen, H.;Pimentel, D., 1984: New approach for selecting biological control agents. Can. Ent.116, 1109–1121.Google Scholar
  33. Hoy, M. A., 1976: Establishment of gypsy moth parasitoids in North America: an evaluation of possible reasons for establishment or non-establishment. In: Perspectives in Forest Entomology, Ed. byJ. F. Anderson andKaya, Academic Press New York, 215–232.Google Scholar
  34. Izkevskaya, S. S., 1983: “The role of insect natural enemies”. Zashchita Rastenii5, 37–38.Google Scholar
  35. Jayanth, K. P.;Nagarkatti, S., 1984: TestingBessa remota (Dipt.: Tachinidae) againstOpisina arenosella (Lept.: Cryptophasidae) and other lepidopterous hosts in India. Entomophaga29, 415–419.Google Scholar
  36. Kamran, M. A., 1972: Introduction of the Amazon fly in the Philippines for biological control of the rice borers. Environ. Entomol.1, 527–528.Google Scholar
  37. Kamran, M. A., 1973: Introduction of neotropical tachinids into Southeast Asia for biological control of stem borers of graminaceous crops. Bull. Ent. Soc. Am.19, 143–146.Google Scholar
  38. Kamran, M. A.;Raros, E. S., 1971: Introduction, laboratory propagation, and field releases ofSturmiopsis inferens in the Philippines. J. econ. Ent.64, 1277–1280.Google Scholar
  39. Kelleher, J. S.;Hulme, M. A., 1984: Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1969–1980. Commonwealth Agri. Bureaux, Slough, England, 1–410.Google Scholar
  40. Kimberling, D. N.;Miller, J. C.;Penrose, R. L., 1986: Distribution and parasitism of winter moth,Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), in western Oregon. Environ. Entomol.15, 1042–1046.Google Scholar
  41. King, E. G.;Sanford, J.;Smith, J. W.;Martin, D. F.;Hensley, S. D., 1981: Augmentative release ofLixophaga diatraea (Dipt.: Tachinidae) for suppression of early season sugarcane borer populations in Louisiana. Entomophaga26, 59–69.Google Scholar
  42. Leeper, J. R., 1974: Adult feeding behaviour ofLixophaga sphenophori, a Tachinid Parasite of the New Guinea sugarcane weevil. Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society21, 403–412.Google Scholar
  43. Lewis, L. C., 1982: Present status of introduced parasitoids of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), in Iowa. Iowa State J. of Res.56, 429–436.Google Scholar
  44. Lipa, J. J. 1976: Arthropods (Arthropoda) introduced into Poland during 1959–1964 by the Institute of Plant protection for the biological control of plant pests. Prace Naukowe IOR. Poznan18, 165–166.Google Scholar
  45. Luck, R. F.;Scriven, G. T., 1976: The elm leaf beetle,Pyrrhalta luteola, in Southern California: its pattern of increase and its control by introduced parasites. Environ. Entomol.5, 409–416.Google Scholar
  46. MacPherson, R. M.;Hensley, S. D., 1976: Potential ofLixophaga diatraeae for control ofDiatraea saccharalis in Louisiana. J. Econ. Entomol.69, 215–218.Google Scholar
  47. MacPherson, R. M.;Hensley, S. D., Graves, J. B.;King, E. G., 1976: Dosage-mortality responses of the parasite,Lixophaga diatraeae, to selected insecticides in the laboratory. J. Econ. Entomol.69, 105–108.Google Scholar
  48. Mackauer, M., 1972: Genetic aspects of insect production. Entomophaga17, 27–48.Google Scholar
  49. Mani, M.;Krishnamoorthy, A., 1983: Recovery of two exotic parasites.Trichogramma brasiliensis (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) andEucelatoria bryani (Dipt.: Tachinidae) fromHeliothis armigera (Lept.: Noctuidae) in tomato fields. Entomophaga28, 401–406.Google Scholar
  50. Michael, P. J., 1981:Trichopoda — a tricky parasite. J. Agric. Western Australia22, 56–57.Google Scholar
  51. Myers, J. G., 1934: The discovery and introduction of the amazon fly — a new parasite for cane borers (Diatraea spp). Trop. Agriculture11, 191–195.Google Scholar
  52. Nordlund, D. A., 1984: Biological control with entomophagous insects. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc., second supplement19, 14–27.Google Scholar
  53. Odell, T. M.;Godwin, P. A., 1984: Host selction byBlepharipa pratensis (Meigen), a tachnid parasite of the gypsy mothLymantria dispar L. J. of Chemical Ecol.10, 311–320.Google Scholar
  54. Olton, G. S.;Legner, E. F., 1974: Biology ofTachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoid of synanthropic diptera. Can Entomol.106, 785–800.Google Scholar
  55. Otvos, I. S., 1973: A method for rearing overwintering larvae ofWinthemia occidentis (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasite of the eastern hemlock looper. Can. Ent.105, 581–582.Google Scholar
  56. Pschorn-Walcher, H.;Schroeder, D.;Eichhorn, O., 1969: Recent attempts at biological control of some canadian forest insect pests. C.I.B.C. Technical Bull.11, 1–18.Google Scholar
  57. Rao, V. P.;Ghani, M. A.;Sankaran, T.;Mathur, K. C., 1971: A review of the biological control of insects and other pests in Southeast Asia and the pacific region. Techn. Comm. C.I.B.C.6, 1–149.Google Scholar
  58. Reardon, R. C., 1973: A survey for tachinid parasitoids of the gypsy moth on cape cod, Massachusetts. Environ. Entomol.2, 964–965.Google Scholar
  59. Roland, J., 1986: Parasitism of winter moth in British Columbia during build-up of its parasitoidCyzenis albicans: Attack rate on oak v. apple. J. animal Ecol.55, 215–234.Google Scholar
  60. Romig, R. F.;Mason, C. E.;Burbutis, P. P. 1985: Parasitism of European corn borer byLydella thompsoni (Diptera: Tachinidae) and,Macrocentrus grandii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Southeast Pennsylvania and Delaware. Ent. News96, 121–128.Google Scholar
  61. Scheibelreiter, G. K., 1980: Sugarcane stem borers (Lep.: Noctuidae and Pyralidae) in Ghana. Z. angew. Ent.89, 87–99.Google Scholar
  62. Scriven, G. T.;Luck, R. F., 1978: Natural enemy promises control of Nantucket pine tip moth. Calif. agric.32, 19–20.Google Scholar
  63. Sechser, B., 1970: Der Parasitenkomplex des Kleinen Frostspanners (Operophthera brumata L.) (Lep., Geometr.) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kokonparasiten. Z. ang. Ent.66, 144–160.Google Scholar
  64. Shenhmar, M.;Varma, G. C., 1983: Trials withParatheresia claripalpis (Wulp) (Tachinidae: Diptera) an exotic parasitoid against sugarcane borers in the Punjab. Entomon8, 309–310.Google Scholar
  65. Simmonds, F. J., 1972: Approaches to biological control problems. Entomophaga17, 251–264.Google Scholar
  66. Simmonds, F. J., 1976: Some recent puzzles in biological control. Entomophaga21, 327–332.Google Scholar
  67. Summers, T. E.;King, E. G.;Martin, D. F.;Jackson, R. D., 1976: Biological control ofDiatraea saccharalis (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Florida by periodic releases ofLixophaga diatraeae (Dipt.: Tachinidae). Entomophaga21, 359–366.Google Scholar
  68. Tamaki, G.;Chauvin, R. L.;Burditt, A. K. Jr., 1983: Field evaluation ofDoryphorophaga doryphorae (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasite, and its host the colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environ. Entomol.12, 386–389.Google Scholar
  69. Treat, A. E.;Flechtmann, C. H. W., 1979:Charletonia rocciai n. sp. (Acari, Prostigmata, Erythraeidae), an ectoparasite of the amazon fly. Int. J. Acarology5, 117–122.Google Scholar
  70. Wegorek, W.;Pruszynski, S., 1978: Stan badan nad introdukcja do polski Wrogow natural nycht stonki ziemniaczanej (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Postepy Nauk Rolniczych5, 61–73.Google Scholar
  71. Wilson, F.;Wearne, G. R., 1962: The introduction into Australia of parasites ofListroderes obliquus Klug., Austr. J. agric. Res.12, 249–257.Google Scholar
  72. Yaseen, M. 1975: A further note on the introduction ofHeliothis parasites into the lesser Antilles. P.A.N.S.21, 155–157.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Verlag Paul Parey 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Grenier
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorire de Biologie AppliquéeINRA. Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de LyonVilleurbanneFrance

Personalised recommendations