Skip to main content

On the differences betweenThecodiplosis brachyntera Schwäg. andThecodiplosis japonensis Uch. et in. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on the genusPinus

Abstract

The main differences betweenThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägrichen) andT. japonensis Uchida et Inouye in morphology, bionomics, host plants, ecology, population dynamics, distribution, parasites, economic importance and control methods are given in this paper. The area ofT. b. onPinus sylvestris is more than 10 times larger than that ofP. j. onP. densiflora andP. thunbergii. The flight period of adults and the length of the first instar larvae ofT. b. is about 4 times shorter than those ofT. j. Both species can be transferred (infestation) to otherPinus spp. Death ofPinus trees attacked byT. b. was never observed in Europe. The influence of air pollution may change this situation.T. japonensis caused death ofPinus trees. Thousands of hectares of forests had to be felled. Parasites and predators are important in controlling the population densities of both species, but in practice biological control was only used againstT. j. Studies of chemical contents of needles and larvae produced interesting data on both species.T. brachyntera has been studied for 150 years andT. japonensis for 50 years.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

Thecodiplosis brachyntera

  • Bucha, V., 1976: Varations in the geomagnetic field, the climate and wether. Studia geom. et geod.20, 149–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burzynski, J., 1965:Thecodiplosis brachyntera Schwägr., biology, economic importance and control. Inst. bad. Lesn. Praca274, 1–78 (in Polish, Germ. res.).

    Google Scholar 

  • Covassi, M.;Masutti, L., 1973: Sulla presenza dellaThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) in pinete delle Alpi centro-orientali (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Redia56, 235–241.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehnström, B., 1985: Outbreak of the pine gall midgeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) in Sweden. Proc. of the joint Conf. IUFRO working parties on forest gall midges and rust of pines 29–33.

  • Fankhänel, H., 1962: Zur Massenvermehrung, Lebensweise und einer biologischen Bekämpfung der KiefernnadelgallmükkeThecodiplosis brachyntera Schwägr. Beitr. Ent.12, 732–747.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fankhänel, H.;Zeletzki, CH., 1964: Zur Entwicklung des EndoparasitenMisocyclops pini Kieffer (Proctotrupoidea) und seiner Einsatzmöglichkeiten gegen die KiefernnadelgallmückeThecodiplosis brachyntera Schwägr. (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae). Beitr. Ent.14, 707–730.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedrichs, H.;Winter, K., 1987: Die Kiefernnadelgallmücken und ihre forstliche Bedeutung in Niedersachsen. J. appl. Ent.104, 92–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ilko, J., 1980: Methods of long term prognosis of some meteorological elements for Slovakia. Zpráva SHU 5111, 18pp.

  • Kaňák, K., 1971: Arboretum Sofronka. For. and Game Manag. Res. Inst. Zbraslav, 38pp.

  • Koehler, W., 1961: Remarks to pine midge occurence in 1958 to 1960. Las polski45, 1–3 (in Polish).

    Google Scholar 

  • Rohfritsch, O.;Skuhravý, V., 1970: Étude de development de la galle deThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) surP. mugo ssp.mughus (Scop.). Marcellia36, 175–186.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravá, M.;Skuhravý, V., 1967: Beitrag zur Gallmückenfauna von Österreich. Marcellia34, 213–227.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravá, M.;Skuhravý, V.;Neacsu, P., 1972: Verbreitung der Gallmücken in Rumänien. Dtsch. Ent. Z. N. F.19, 375–392.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V., 1970: Zur Ökologie der KiefernnadelgallmückeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.). Inf. Landw. Hochsch. Nitra8, 69–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V., 1970: Das Schadbild der KiefernnadelgallmückeThecodiplosis brachyntera) (Schwägr.) (Diptera, Cecicomyiidae) an Nadeln einigerPinus-Arten. Marcellia38, 228–241.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V. 1972: Experimental induction of various types of structural demage byThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) onPinus sylvestris L. andP. mugo Turra (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Marcellia37, 163–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V., 1972:, Incidence of infestation on Mountain Pine (Pinus mugo Turra) by the needle shortening gall midgeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Z. ang. Ent.72, 267–272.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V., 1972: Experimentelle Infizierung einiger außereuropäischer Pinus-Arten durch die KiefernnadelgallmückeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Anz. Pflanzen-Umweltschutz45, 119–124.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V., 1974: Die KiefernnadelgallmückeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) ein Modellobjekt für ökologische Untersuchungen. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Fol. Fac. Sci. Nat. Univ. Purkynianae Brunnensis15, 41–44.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V., 1991: The needle shortening gall midgeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) on the genusPinus. Rozpravy CSAV10, 1–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V.;Skuhravá M., 1993: Zur Verbreitung und Schädlichkeit der Gallmücken (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) an Waldbäumen in Mitteleuropa. Anz. Schädlingskde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz66, 134–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skuhravý, V.;Hochmut, R., 1969: Befallsdichte der KiefernnadelgallmückeThecodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) anPinus sysvestris verschiedener Provenienz. Anz. Schädlingskde42, 165–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thygessen, T., 1973: Experiments on the needle shortening pine gall midge (Thecodiplosis brachyntera) O.L. Kult. 864, 367–377.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vrkoč, J.;Lukeš, V.;Skuhravý, V., 1973: Gehalt der Monoterpenkohlenwasserdtoffe der BergkeiferPinus mogo ssp.mugbus (Scop.) Domin und ihre Beziehung zum Befall durch die KiefernnadelgallmückeTheocodiplosis brachyntera (Schwägr.) Z. ang. Ent.74, 199–206.

    Google Scholar 

Thecodiplosis japonensis

  • Choi, S. Y., 1985: Chemical control of the pine gall midges in Korea. Proc. of the joint Conf. of IUFRO working parties on forest gall midges and rusts of pines 11–114.

  • Furuno, T., 1978: Studies on the inserct damage upon the Pinespecies imprted in Japan No. 5. Bull. Kyoto Univ. For.50, 12–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Han, S. U.;Lee, F. K.;Chon, B. K., 1980: Biochemical substances from normal and infested needles attacked byThecodiplosis japonensis inPinus densiflora, P. thunbergii andP. rigida. J. Korean For. Soc.50, 49–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hong, S.; Jhun, G.; Sohn, S.; Kim, S.; Park, H., 1985: Research on breeding pine resistant to the pine gall midge in Korea. Proc. of the joint Conf. of IUFRO working parties on forest gall midges and rusts of pines 87–99.

  • Jeon, M. J., 1983: On the instar discrimation of the larvae of pine needle gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis and the appearance period of each instar. (in Korean, Engl. summ.) Korean J. Ent.13, 43–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeon, M. J.;Lee, B. Y.;Ko, J. H.;Miura, T.;Hirashima, Y., 1985: Ecology ofPlatygaster matsutama andIncostemma seoulis (Hymenoptera, Platygasteridae) egg-larval parasites of the needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Esakia23, 131–143.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, C. W.;Kim, B. K., 1975: Evaluation of the predators on the larvae of the pine-needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye by the prcipitin test. Korean J. Ent.5, 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, C. W.;Noh, Y. T.;Park, J. S. 1968: (Natural ennemies of the pine pine gall bidge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Inouye, in Korea). Ent. Res. Bull.4, 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, C. W.;Yoon, I. B.;Nam, S. H.;Byun, J. U.;Kim, M. L., 1981: (Studies on the control of pine gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouyes by arthropods. Ent. Res. Bull.8, 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, H. R.;Chun, S. Y.;Yoon, S. Y.;Sec, E. W., 1981: (A lethal effect of synthetic juvenile hormones on pine needle gall midge.Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye). Ent Res. Bull.8, 23–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ko, J. H., 1965: The distribution of the pine gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis in Seoul district. J. Plant. Prot. Korea6, 55–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ko, J. H., 1966: Studies on theIsostasius seoulis Ko, the larval parasite of the pine gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye III. The life history. (in Korean, Eng. summ.) Res. Rep. Off. Rural Developm. Suwon9, 59–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ko, J. H., 1969: Seasonal trends in the population of the larvae of the pine gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et InouyaE in the spring. J. Korean For. Soc.9, 45–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ko, J. H., 1980: A new species (Hymenoptera, Platygasteridae) a larval parasite of the pine gall midgeThecodiplosis sp. Korea J. Plant Prot.19, 35–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ko, J. H., 1984: Compilation of substracts on midges of woody plants Res. Notes of the For. Res. Inst. No. 24, 154pp.

  • Ko, J. H., 1985: Biological control of pine gall midge in Korea. Proc. of the joint Conf. of IUFRO working parties on forest gall midges and rusts of pines 35–47.

  • Ko, J. H.;Lee, B. Y., 1971: Studies on the utilization of the hymenopterous parasites (Isostasius seoulis Ko andPlatygaster sp.) on pine gall midge. (in Korean, Eng. summ.) Res. Rep. For. Res. Inst. Korea18, 85–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ko, J. H.;Lee, B. Y., 1975: Influence of the wind on the dispersion of the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis) tested in the wind tunel. Korean J. Ent.5, 16–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kwon, S. H.;Chung, K. H.;Ryu, J., 1978: (Radioisotope labelling method of pine gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye Korean J. Plant Prot.17, 155–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, K. R., 1980: Fatty acids of larval stages in the pine leaf gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis. Kor. J. Zool., 57–65.

  • Lee, S. H., 1981: Biology and control of pine gall midge. (in Korean, Engl. summ.) Office of Forestry, Korea, 28pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, B. Y.;Miura, T.;Hirashima, Y., 1985: Survivorship and other factors realiting to population fluctuations of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Esakia23, 119–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miura, T., 1962: Studies onThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouyea and its important parasite,Platygaster sp. (in Jap. Engl. summ.) For. Exp. St. Shimane, 168pp.

  • Miura, T.;Yano, K.;Maeta, Y., 1986: Selected insects in pine forests infested by the gall midges in Korea. Bull Fac. Agr. Himane Univ.20, 176–190.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogata, K.;Miura, T.;Yano, K.;Ko, J. H., 1985: Ants collected in pine forests inested by the pine gall midge in Korea. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Esakia23, 159–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, K. N.;Hyun, J. S., 1977: Studies on the population dynamics of pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis. Uchida et Inouye. Res. Rep. For. Res. Inst. Korea24, 91–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, K. N.;Hyun, S. J., 1977: Studies on the populations dynamics of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye. Res. Rep. For. Res. Inst. Korea24, 91–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, K. N.;Hyun, S. J., 1983: Studies on the effects of the pine needle gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye, on the growth of the red Pine,Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini. J. Korean For. Soc.61, 20–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1980: Seasonal changes in the population of the pine needle gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) (in Jap. Engl. summ.) J. Jap. For. Soc.62, 168–175.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1984: Realized fecundity of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Appl. Ent. Zool.19, 534–536.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1985: Within tree distribution of the infestation by the pine gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cedicomyiidae) J. Jap. For. Soc.67, 495–500.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1985: Gregariousness and development of larvae of the pine needles gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in a gall. Appl. Ent. Zool.20, 431–438.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1986: Morality factors before gall formation by the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). J. Jap. For. Soc.68, 32–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1987: Population dynamics of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). J. Appl. Ent.103, 386–402.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1986: Impact of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on the growth of pine trees. J. Jap. For. Soc.68, 278–283.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K. 1986: Ecology of host-parasitoid community in the pine needle gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). J. App. Ent.102, 516–527.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K., 1986: Ecological studies on the pine needle gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye. Life history. Bull. For. Forest. Prod. Res. Inst.341, 1–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K.;Furuno, T., 1982: Annual changes in infestation of the pine needle gall midgeThecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye, in a pine stand (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) J. Jap. For. Soc.64, 301–306.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K.;Takeda, H., 1983: Spadies on the distribution pattern of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in a pine forest. Res. Popul. Ecol.25, 336–352.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soné, K.;Takeda, H., 1983: Spatial pattern of the population and infestion of the pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in a pine stand. Res. Popul. Ecol.25, 336–352.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woo, K. S.;Shim, J. W., 1978: (A study of the improvement of the collection traps of the adult pine needle gall midge,Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye. Korean J. Plant. Prot.17, 105–113.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

With 7 figures

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Skuhravý, V. On the differences betweenThecodiplosis brachyntera Schwäg. andThecodiplosis japonensis Uch. et in. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on the genusPinus . Anz. Schadlingskde., Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 67, 156–161 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01905775

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01905775

Keywords

  • Plant Physiology
  • Population Density
  • Host Plant
  • Plant Pathology
  • Population Dynamic