Advertisement

Environmentalist

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 47–59 | Cite as

The role of citizen scientist in nature resource decision-making: Lessons from the spruce budworm problem in Canada

  • Alan Miller
Papers

Summary

An increased role for citizen participation in natural resource decision-making has been advocated by, amongst others, the United Nations (Brundtland Commission) as a means of initiating fundamental changes in the way we exploit natural resources. However, attempts at meaningful participation by the public are met with resistance, commonly by the dominant elites who control environmental and economic policies. Citizen groups press for involvement, only to be dismissed by local establishments as ill-informed amateurs. The resulting conflicts seldom lead to innovations in policy or to constructive cooperation in the face of new environmental problems. This leads the author to feelings of pessimism about prospects for genuine public participation in the absence of political change. In arguing in support of such change, a case study is offered which illustrates the unfortunate consequences that ensue when participation is sought and rejected. The paper closes with recommendations for the way in which citizen groups could contribute in a meaningful way to natural resource decision-making, were they to be given the opportunity.

Keywords

Natural Resource Economic Policy Nature Conservation Environmental Problem Citizen Scientist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blais, J. 1985. The ecology of the eastern Spruce Budworm: A review and discussion. In: Sanders, C. et al. (eds),Recent Advances in Spruce Budworms Research. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  2. Boulter, R. 1987.Report on Pesticides. Presentation to the Pesticide Advisory Board, 7th November. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  3. Brookman, D., Chopra, C., Ecobichon, D., Kang, C., Ritter, L. and Thorsen, J. 1984. Assessment of the potential of insecticides, emulsifiers and solvent mixtures to enhance viral infection in cultured mammalian cells.App. Environ. Microbiol.,47, 80–83.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, P. 1990. Toxic waste contamination and popular epidemiology: Lay and professional ways of knowing. Unpublished manuscript, Brown University, Rhode Island, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, P. and Mikkelsen, E. 1990.No Safe Place. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Brundtland Commission. 1987.Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Burrill, G. and McKay, I. 1987.People, Resources and Power. Acadiensis Press, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Canadian Press. 1980. Robertson discounts claims-Concerned parents claim spray ingredient linked to cancer.Daily Gleaner, 26th May, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  9. Cashore, B. 1988. The role of the provincial state in forest policy: A comparative study of British Columbia and New Brunswick. Unpublished MA thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  10. Collingridge, D. and Reeve, C. 1986.Science Speaks to Power: The Role of Experts in Policy Making. Francis Pinter (Publishers), London.Google Scholar
  11. Concerned Parents. 1977a.Update. August. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  12. Concerned Parents. 1977b.Bloomfield area: depositions from sprayed citizens. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  13. Concerned Parents. 1977c.Pattern of aerial spraying in Blocks 616–716, 617–717, and incidents of illness. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Concerned Parents. 1980.News release on the findings of Dr. Kawachi, 3rd June. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  15. Conlogue, R. 1978. Spring fever: the fight is on.Kings County Record, 3rd June. Sussex, NB. Canada.Google Scholar
  16. CCNB (Conservation Council of New Brunswick). 1970.Report of the Pesticide Committee of the Conservation Council of New Brunswick, August. CCNB, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  17. CCNB (Conservation Council of New Brunswick). 1986.Annual General Meeting Resolutions. CCNB, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  18. Cotgrove, S. 1982.Catastrophe or Cornucopia. Wiley, Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  19. Crocker, J., Rozee, K., Ozere, R., Digout, S. and Hutzinger, D. 1974. Insecticide and viral interaction as a cause of fatty visceral changes in encephalopathy in the mouse.The Lancet, 6th July 6th, pp. 22–24.Google Scholar
  20. Crocker, J., Ozere, R., Safe, S., Digout, S., Rozee, K. and Hutzinger, D. 1976. Lethal interactions of ubiquitous insecticide carriers with virus.Science,192, 1351–1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. deLeon, P. 1990. Participatory policy analysis: prescriptions and precautions.Asian J. Public Administration,12, 29–54.Google Scholar
  22. Deveaux, B. 1982.Poison Mist: A Special Investigation into New Brunswick's Forest Spray Programme. CBC Radio documentary, 3rd January. Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  23. Dryzek, J. 1987.Rational Ecology: Environment and Political Economy. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  24. Ecobichon, D. and Crocker, J. 1978. Depression of blood cholinesterases as a marker of spray exposure.Chemosphere,7, 591–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ecobichon, D., Ozere, R., Reid, E. and Crocker, J. 1977. Acute Fenitrothion poisoning.Canadian Medical Assoc. J. 19, 377–379.Google Scholar
  26. Eidt, D. 1989. The future of Spruce Budworm research.Forestry Chronicle,65, 254–257.Google Scholar
  27. Fischer, F. 1990.Technocracy and the Politics of Expertise. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, USA.Google Scholar
  28. Freedman, B. 1989.Environmental Ecology. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.Google Scholar
  29. Gillis, R. and Roach, T. 1986.Lost Initiatives: Canada's Forest Industries, Forest Policy and Forest Conservation. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Guerin, L. 1976.Presentation to the Cabinet of the Province of New Brunswick Regarding Objections to the 1976 Spruce Budworm Spray Program. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  31. Hanton, E. 1992. NB unveils forestry aid plan.Daily Gleaner, 24th January. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  32. Hatcher, J. et al. 1985.Report of the Task Force on Chemicals in the Environment and Human Reproductive Problems in New Brunswick. Department of Health, Government of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  33. Hunt, R. 1976. Biological Warfare in New Brunswick.Weekend Magazine, 26th May. St John, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  34. Hurwitz, E. et al. 1987. Public health service study of Reye's Syndrome and medications.J. Am. Medical Assoc.,257, 1905–1911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kooiman, G. 1992. Forest policy and private woodlots. Letter the to Editor.Daily Gleaner, 6th March. Fredericton, NB. Canada.Google Scholar
  36. Kotzwinkle, W. 1972. You are a worm.Mysterious East,19, 11–16.Google Scholar
  37. Levine, A. 1982.Love Canal: Science, Politics and People. Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  38. McCarthy, J. 1976. Concerned Parents meet Cabinet: Public inquiry urged on budworm spraying.Daily Gleaner, 3rd June. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  39. McNutt, W. 1963.New Brunswick. A History: 1784–1867. MacMillan, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  40. Menna, W. 1985. Effect of emulsifiers on influenza type A virus infection,in vivo andin vitro studies.J. Toxicol. Environ. Health,16, 441–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Methven, I 1985. Herbicides and environmentalism-How should we respond?UNB Forestry Focus,10(4).Google Scholar
  42. Milbrath, L. 1989.Envisioning a Sustainable Society. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  43. Miller, A. and Cuff, W. 1986. The Delphi approach to the mediation of environmental disputes.Environmental Management,10, 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paehlke, R. 1989.Environmentalism and the Future of Progressive Politics. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.Google Scholar
  45. Rowe, P., Vallae, D. and Brusilow, S. 1988. Inborn errors of metabolism in children referred with Reye's Syndrome.J. Am. Medical Assoc.,260, 3167–3170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rozee, K., Laltoo, M., Lee, S., Crocker, J. and Safe, S. 1978. Emulsifiers as enhancement factors in virus virulence. Conference presentation at the International Conference on Reye's Syndrome, 22–23 June, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.Google Scholar
  47. Rozee, K., Lee, S., Crocker, J., Digout, S. and Arcinue, E. 1982. Is a compromised interferon response an etiological factor in Reye's syndrome?Canadian Medical Assoc. J.,126, 798–802.Google Scholar
  48. Schneider, W. et al. 1976.Forest Spray Programme and Reye's Syndrome. Government of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  49. Schuyler, G. 1982. Forest management and chemical spraying. In: Taylor, M. (ed.),Brief of Select Committee on Environment of New Brunswick Legislature. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  50. Spitzer, W. et al. 1982.Report of the New Brunswick Task Force on the Environment and Reye's Syndrome. Department of Health, Government of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  51. Spitzer, W. et al. 1984.Report of the New Brunswick Task Force on the Environment and Cancer. Department of Health, Government of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  52. Staff Reporter. 1969. Public mistrusts forest spraying-says J.H. Fenety.Daily Gleaner, 19th February. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  53. Staff Reporter. 1971. Condemns forestry's “unholy alliance”.Daily Gleaner. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  54. Staff Reporter. 1979. Anti-spray group disappointed.Daily Gleaner, 27th November. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  55. Staff Reporter. 1982a. Concerned Parents more interested in media attention than getting facts: Robertson charges.Daily Gleaner, 24th April. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  56. Staff Reporter. 1982b. Concerned Parents doubt outcome of spraying report.Daily Gleaner, 20th April. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  57. Staff Reporter. 1992. Budworm spray program cut back.Daily Gleaner, 26th February. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  58. Taylor, M. 1982.Brief to the Select Committee on Environment of the New Brunswick Legislature, 13th January. Concerned Parents, Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  59. Versteeg, H. 1984. The Spruce Budworm programme and the perception of risk in New Brunswick. In: Friends of the Earth (ed.),Pesticide Policy: The Environmental Perspective. Friends of the Earth, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  60. Webb, F. and Irving, H. 1983. My fir lady: The New Brunswick production with its facts and fancies.Forestry Chronicle, June, 118–122.Google Scholar
  61. Weinberg, A. 1972. Science and trans-science.Minerva,10, 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Westveld, M. 1946: Forest management as a means of controlling the Spruce Budworm.Journal of Forestry,44, 949–953.Google Scholar
  63. Wynne, B. 1982.Rationality and Rituals: The Windscale Inquiry and Nuclear Decisions in Britain. The British Society for the History of Science, Chalfont St. Giles, UK.Google Scholar
  64. Zamula, E. 1990. Reye Syndrome: the decline of a disease.FDA Consumer, November, 21–23.Google Scholar
  65. Zatzman, G. 1978a. Talks break off unproductively-Concerned Parents meet government officials.Daily Gleaner, 25th May. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar
  66. Zatzman, G. 1978b. Scientist calls spraying opponents witch hunters.Daily Gleaner, 15th June. Fredericton, NB, Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science and Technology Letters 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.University of New Brunswick, Psychology DepartmentUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations