Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) deals with isotopes possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment. The nuclei are used as probes to explore the internal magnetic fields in solids. Thus NMR has become a new tool in solid-state physics. Some typical examples of the application of NMR to solid-state problems are discussed.
The location and orientation of water molecules in crystals are determined by NMR with relative ease. The second moment of an NMR line shape yields information on the structure as well as on the mobility of the atoms. The various types of resonance frequency shifts may be used for the understanding of the interactions and bonds in the solid and the dynamics of the crystal lattice.
Very important are nuclei possessing both a magnetic dipole and an electric quadrupole moment. They serve as very sensitive detectors of the internal electric fields prevailing in solids. Apart from further structural information, NMR spectra influenced by electric quadrupole interaction may be used for studying such topics as aluminium-silicon ordering in feldspars or phase transitions in ferroelectrics.
The utility of NMR in treating problems of the bonding is exemplified by showing that the covalent effects in the alkali halides are very small.
Some investigations of ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are mentioned.
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