The Visual Computer

, Volume 8, Issue 5–6, pp 351–360 | Cite as

Image processing and synthesis for extended depth of field of optical microscopes

  • Kazufumi Kaneda
  • Shohei Ishida
  • Akira Ishida
  • Eihachiro Nakamae
Article

Abstract

An optimal microscope is useful for observing various kinds of samples. However, precise observation of an extended region in depth is difficult, because of the narrow range of depth of focus. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a method of obtaining a pan-focused stereoscopic image. By using image processing, in-focus areas are extracted from multiple images focused on slightly different depths, and a stereoscopic image is composed with these in-focus areas. The proposed method is applied to the observation of three-dimensional distributions of soil particles, a common problem in the field of civil engineering, and the usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated.

Key words

Optical microscope image Depth of focus Pan-focused image Multiple image processing Pillar-shaped voxel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Darrell T, Wohn K (1988) Pyramid based depth from focus. Proc IEEE Comput Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp 504–509Google Scholar
  2. Indebetouw G, Bai H (1984) Imaging with Fresnel zone pupil masks: extended depth of field. Appl Optics 23(23):4299–4302Google Scholar
  3. Inoue T, Yokoyama J, Hayashi T (1980) Fundamentals of observation using microscopes (in Japanese). Chijin-syokan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. Okabayashi M, Kikuchi S, Ohyama N, Honda T (1989) Increasing focal depth of reflecting microscope images by synthetic method (in Japanese). Institute of Television Engineers of Japan, Technical Report 13(46):19–23Google Scholar
  5. Pieper RJ, Korpel A (1983) Image processing for extended depth of field. Appl Optics 22 (10):1449–1453Google Scholar
  6. Rosenfeld A, Kak AC (1976) Digital picture processing. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Shio A (1989) Pan-focused image synthesis using multiple images with different focal conditions (in Japanese). Information Processing Society of Japan, Special Interest Group Reports 89(16):105–110Google Scholar
  8. Sugimoto SA, Ichioka Y (1985) Digital composition of images with increased depth of focus considering depth information. Appl Optics 24(14):2076–2080Google Scholar
  9. Tazawa E (1989) Grain and concrete (in Japanese). Cement Concrete (514):1–8Google Scholar
  10. Welford WT (1960) Use of annular apertures to increase focal depth. J Optical Soc Am 50(8):749–753Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazufumi Kaneda
    • 1
  • Shohei Ishida
    • 2
  • Akira Ishida
    • 1
  • Eihachiro Nakamae
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringHiroshima UniversityHigashi-hiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Matushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.OsdakaJapan

Personalised recommendations