Materiae vegetabiles

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 329–339 | Cite as

A standard grading of fresh cacao beans

  • Raffaele Ciferri
  • Fiorella Ciferri


The problem of grading of fresh cacao beans for breeding and for taxonomic purpose is discussed. Seven grades are based on the color of transversal cutting of the cotyledons in fully mature beans, and the colors (plate) refer to color standards, namely:Grade 7 attributed to the true Criollos (two types and hybrid) as well as to Porcelain (with a short discussion on this cacao);Grade 6 to the Commerical Criollos (Almost-Criollos);Grade 5 to the Superior Forastero, chiefly Venezuelan Forastero;Grade 4 to the Average Forastero, typified with the Trinitarian Forastero;Grade 3 to the Low grade Forastero, probably corresponding to the Orinocan Forastero;Grade 2 attributed to the Almost Calabacillo (in part corresponding to the Amazonian Forastero);Grade 1 for true Calabacillo. Several examples of cacao grading for regions of Venezuela (and elsewere) and for the kind of cacao are selected, with an example of the yearly fluctuation of the grade in the same tree or cacao. The pod grade value (P.G.V.) as weighted average, is discussed.


Color Plant Physiology Weighted Average Venezuela Standard Grade 
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Literature Quoted

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Copyright information

© Uitgeverij Dr. W. Junk 1954

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raffaele Ciferri
    • 1
  • Fiorella Ciferri
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanical InstituteThe University of PaviaItaly

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