Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 109, Issue 1, pp 72–77 | Cite as

Small-cell lung cancer and immunochemotherapy withPropionibacterium granulosum KP 45

  • K. Roszkowski
  • B. Nozdryn-Plotnicki
  • W. Roszkowski
  • H. L. Ko
  • J. Jeljaszewicz
  • G. Pulverer
Original Papers Clinical Oncology or Epidemiology


Seventy-nine patients with small-cell lung cancer were treated with vincristin, methotrexate, and cyclophosphamide in inductive therapy and with methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, and procarbazine in maintenance therapy. Patients were divided at random into two groups: one group received chemotherapy alone and the second group was additionally subjected to systemic immunotherapy withPropionibacterium granulosum strain KP-45. In general, differences in the frequency of therapy response and in duration of remission could not be stated between the two groups of patients, but patients responding to chemotherapy showed a significantly longer remission time and lower complication rates. This benificial effect of chemoimmunotherapy is not related to a direct antitumor activity of the immunomodifier used, but to the lowered risk of myelosuppression and infections. Immunomodulation in combination with chemo- and/or radiotherapy can be recommended for the treatment of small-cell lung cancer.

Key words

Small-cell lung cancer Systemic immunotherapy Propionibacterium granulosum Immunochemotherapy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adlam C, Broughton ES, Scott MT (1972) Enhanced resistance of mice to infection with bacteria following pretreatment with Corynebacterium parvum. Nature 235:219–220Google Scholar
  2. Amery WK (1978) Final results of multicenter placebo-controled levamisole study of resectable lung cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1677–1683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony HM, Meams AJ, Mason MK (1979) Levamisole and surgery in bronchial carcinoma patients: Increase in deaths from cardiorespiratory failure. Thorax 34:4–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bomford R (1975) Active specific immunotherapy of mouse methylcholanterne induced tumours with Corynebacterium and irradiated tumour cells. Br J Cancer 32:551–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Castro JE (1974) Antitumour effect of Corynebacterium parvum in mice. Eur J Cancer 10:115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cerutti I (1975) Antiviral properties of Corynebacterium parvum. In: Corynebacterium parvum — Application in experimental and clinical oncology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 84–90Google Scholar
  7. Chare MJB, Baum M (1978) The effect of Corynebacterium parvum on proliferation of monocyte precursors in the bone marrow in mice. Dev Biol Stand 38:195–200Google Scholar
  8. Cohen MH, Chretien PB, Ihde DC (1979) Tymosin fraction V and intensive combination chemotherapy. Prolongation the survival of patients with small cell lung cancer. JAMA 241:1813–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Edwards FR, Whitwell F (1978) Use of BCG as an immunostimulant in the surgical treatment of carcinoma of the lung, a five year follow-up report. Thorax 33:250–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Foster J (1978a) Altered toxicity of 5-fluorouracil following treatment with Corynebacterium parvum. Cancer Res 38:850–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Foster J (1978b) Effect of Corynebacterium parvum on the proliferative rate of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and the toxicity of chemotherapy. Cancer Res 38:2666–2672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gil J, Orlowski T, Nowakowski W, Ko HL, Roszkowski K, Roszkowski W, Szmigielski S, Pulverer G, Jeljaszewicz J (1980) Local immunotherapy of stomach and intestinal carcinoma by Propionibacterium granulosum. Dis Colon Rectum 23:536–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Halpern BN, Prevot AR, Biozzi G, Stiffel G, Mouton D, Morard JC, Bouthilleir Y, Decreusfound C (1964) Stimulation de l'activité phagocytaire du systéme reticuloendothelial provoquée par Corynebacterium parvum. Res J Rethiculoendothel Soc 1:77–96Google Scholar
  14. Halpern BN, Biozzi G, Stiffel G, Mouton D (1966) Inhibition of tumour growth by administration of killed Corynebacterium parvum. Nature 212:853–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Israel L (1975) Report of 414 cases of human tumours treated with corynebacteria. In: Corynebacterium parvum — Application in experimental and clinical oncology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 389–401Google Scholar
  16. McKneally MD, Marer C, Kausel HW (1976) Regional immunotherapy of lung cancer with intrapleural BCG. Lancet 1:377–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Nathanson L (1977) Immunology and immunotherapy of human breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2:209–224Google Scholar
  18. Pinsky C, De Jager R, Wittes R (1977) Corynebacterium parvum as adjuvant to combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. In: Neoplasm immunity: Solid tumor therapy. The Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, pp 145–151Google Scholar
  19. Roszkowski W, Szmigielski S, Ko HL, Janiak M, Wrembel K, Pulverer G, Jeljaszewicz J (1980) Effect of three strains of Propionibacteria (P. granulosum, P. avidum, P. acnes) and cell wall preparation on lymphocytes and macrophages. Zentralbl Bakteriol (Orig A) 246:393–404Google Scholar
  20. Roszkowski K, Roszkowski W, Ko HL, Szmigielski S, Pulverer G, Jeljaszewicz J (1982) Clinical experience in treatment of cancer by propionibacteria. In: Bacteria and cancer. Academic Press, London, New York, pp 331–357Google Scholar
  21. Szmigielski S, Roszkowski W, Roszkowskii K, Ko HL, Jeljaszewicz J, Pulverer G (1982) Experimental immunostimulation by propionibacteria. In: Bacteria and cancer. Academic Press, London, New York, pp 129–147Google Scholar
  22. Takita H, Moayeri H (1976) Effects of Corynebacterium parvum and chemotherapy in lung carcinoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 17:292Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Roszkowski
    • 1
  • B. Nozdryn-Plotnicki
    • 2
  • W. Roszkowski
    • 1
  • H. L. Ko
    • 3
  • J. Jeljaszewicz
    • 4
  • G. Pulverer
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Lung Diseases and TuberculosisWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Central Outpatient Clinic of OncologyWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Institute of HygieneUniversity of CologneKöln 41Federal Republic of Germany
  4. 4.National Institute of HygieneWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations