, Volume 7, Issue 3–4, pp 211–221 | Cite as

Cytokines in malaria, pathology and protection

  • Wijnand M. C. Eling
  • Peter G. Kremsner

Key words

cerebral cytokines malaria P. falciparum P. berghei 





granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor


cerebral malaria




tumour necrosis factor


reactive nitrogen intermediates


reactive oxygen intermediates


enzyme immunoassay


intercellular adhesion molecule-1


leucocyte function antigen-1


polymorphonuclear leucocyte


interleukin-1 receptor antagonist


recombinant human-interleukin-1 receptor antagonist


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Clyde DF. Recent trends in the epidemiology and control of malaria. Epid Rev 1987; 9: 219–243.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roman GC. Cerebral malaria: the unsolved riddle. J Neurol Sci 1991; 101: 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warrell DA, Molyneux ME, Beales PF, eds. Severe and complicated malaria. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1990; 84 Suppl 2: 1–65.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wernsdorfer G, Wernsdorfer WH. Social and economic aspects of malaria and its control. In:Wernsdorfer WH and McGregor I. editors. Malaria. Churchill Livingstone. 1992, 2. Chapter 47; 1421–1471.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garnham PCC. Malaria parasites and other Haemosporidia. Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford. 1966.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oo MM, Aikawa M, Than T, Aye T, Myint PT, Igarashi I, Schoene WC. Human cerebral malaria: A pathological study. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 1987; 46: 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jerusalem C, Polder T, Weijers-Rouw M, Eling W, Osonkoya BO, Trinh P. Comparative clinical and experimental study on the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. In: Gigase PL, Mark EAE, editors. Contributions to microbiology and immunology, Vol.7 From Parasitic infection to parasitic disease. Basel, S. Karger AG. 1983: 130–138.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jerusalem C, Polder T, Kubat K, Wijers-Rouw M, Trinh P. Brain edema in cerebral malaria: a comparative clinical and experimental ultrastructural and histochemical study. In: Go KG, Baethmann A, editors. Recent progress in the study and therapy of brain edema. New York, Plenum Publ. Coop. 1984: 127–135.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Riganti M, Ponponratn E, Tegoshi T, Loowaresuan S, Punpoowon B, Aikawa M. Human cerebral malaria in Thailand: A clinico-pathological correlation. Immunology Letters 1990; 25: 199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wright DH, Masemba RM, Bazira ER. The effect of antithymocyte serum on golden hamsters and rats infected withPlasmodium berghei. Brit J Exp Path 1971; 52: 465–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rest JR. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria in golden hamsters and inbred mice. Contr Microbiol Immunol 1983; 7: 139–146.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kamiyama T, Tatsumi M, Matsubara J, Yamamoto K, Rubio Z, Cortes G, Fujii H. Manifestation of cerebral malaria-like symptoms in the WM/Ms rat infected withPlasmodium berghei strain NK65. J Parasit 1987; 73: 1138–1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bakker NPM, Eling WMC, de Groot AMTh, Sinkeldam EJ, Luyken R. Attenuation of malaria infection, paralysis and lesions in the central nervous system by low protein diets in rats. Acta Tropica 1992; 50: 285–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Finley RW, Mackay LJ, Lambert P-H. VirulentP. berghei malaria: prolonged survival and decreased cerebral pathology in T-cell nude deficient mice. J Immunol 1982; 129: 2213–2218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grau GE, Piguet P-F, Engers HD, Louis JA, Vassalli P, Lambert P-H. L3T4+ T lymphocytes play a major role in the pathogenesis of murine cerebral malaria. J Immunol 1986; 137: 2348–2354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Curfs JHAJ, Schetters TPM, Hermsen CC, Jerusalem CR, van Zon AAJC, Eling WMC. Immunological aspects of cerebral lesions in murine malaria. Clin Exp Immunol 1989; 75: 136–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clark IA, Ilschner S, MacMicking JD, Cowden WB. TNF andPlasmodium berghei-Anka-induced cerebral malaria. Immunol Letters 1990; 25: 195–198.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Polder TW, Jerusalem CR, Eling WMC. Topographical distribution of the cerebral lesions in mice infected withPlasmodium berghei. Tropenmed Parasit 1983; 34: 235–243.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Polder TW, Eling WMC, Curfs JHAL, Jerusalem CR, Wijers-Rouw M. Ultrastructural changes in the blood-brain barrier of mice infected withPlasmodium berghei. Acta Leidensia 1992; 60: 31–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray NJ, Murray MB. Diet and cerebral malaria: the effect of famine and refeeding. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 31: 57–61.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grau GE, Kindler V, Piguet P-F, Lambert P-H, Vassalli P. Prevention of experimental cerebral malaria by anticytokine antibodies. J Exp Med 1988; 168: 1499–1504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Curfs JHAJ, Hermsen CC, Kremsner P, Neifer S, Meuwissen JHETh, van Rooijen N, Eling WMC. Tumor necrosis factor-α and macrophages inPlasmodium berghei-induced cerebral malaria. Parasitology, 1993; 107: 125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grau GE, Fajardo LF, Piguet P-F, Allet B, Lambert P-H, Vassalli P. Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) as an essential mediator in murine cerebral malaria. Science 1987; 237: 1210–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grau GE, Heremans HJ, Piguet P-F, Pointaire P, Lambert P-H, Billiau A, Vassalli P. Monoclonal antibody against IFNτ can prevent experimental cerebral malaria and its associated overproduction of tumor necrosis factor. Proc Natl Ac Sci USA 1989; 86: 5572–5574.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sliwa K, Grundmann H, Neifer S, Chaves MF, Sahlmüller G, Blitstein-Willinger E, Bienzle U, Kremsner PG. Prevention of murine cerebral malaria by a stable prostacyclin analog. Infect Immun 1991; 59: 3846–3848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kremsner PG, Grundman H, Neifer S, Sliwa K, Sahlmüller G, Hegenscheid B, Bienzle U. Pentoxifylline prevents murine cerebral malaria. J M Dis 1991; 164: 605–608.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Neifer S, Bienzle U, Eling W, Kremsner PG. Selective damage of hippocampal neurons in murine cerebral malaria prevented by pentoxifylline. JNeur Sci 1993; 114: 20–24.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Curfs JHAJ, van der Meide PH, Billiau A, Meuwissen JHETh, McEling WMC. Recombinant interferon-τ and the development of parasitemia and cerebral lesions inPlasmodium berghei-infected mice. Exp Parasit. 1993; 77: 212–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Neta R. Mechanisms involved in the low responsiveness of mice in thein vivo release of lymphokines. In: Oppenheim JJ, Cohen S, editors. Interleukins, lymphokines and cytokines, New York: Academic Press, Inc, 711–721.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Clark IA, Hunt NG, Butcher GA, Cowden WB. Inhibition of murine malaria (Plasmodium chabaudi)in vivo by recombinant interferonτ or tumor necrosis factor, and its enhancement by butylated hydroxyanisole. J Immunol 1987; 13: 3493–3496.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bienzle U, Fritsch KG, Hoth G, Rozdzinski E, Köhler K, Kalinowski M, Kremsner P, Rosenkaimer F, Feldmeier H. Inhibition ofPlasmodium vinckei-malaria in mice by recombinant murine interferonrτ. Acta Tropica 1988; 45: 289–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shear L, Srinivasan R, Nolan T, Ng C. Role of IFN-τ in lethal and non-lethal malaria in susceptible and resistant murine hosts. J Immunol 1989; 143: 2038–2044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stevenson MM, Tam MF, Belosevic M, van der Meide P, Podoba JE. Role of endogenous gamma interferon in host response to infection with blood stagePlasmodium chabaudi AS. Infect Immun 1990; 58: 3225–3232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Slade SJ, Langhorne J. Production of interferon-τ during infection of mice withPlasmodium chabaudi chabaudi. Immunobiology 1989; 179: 353–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kremsner PG, Neifer S, Schermuck S, Chaves MF, Sliwa K, Bienzle U. Interferon-τ enhances the effect of anti-malarial chemotherapy in murinePlasmodium vinckei malaria. J Infect Dis 1991; 163: 1161–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Finnemann S, Kremsner PG, Chaves MF, Schumacher C, Neifer S, Bienzle U. Antibody response inPlasmodium vinckei malaria after treatment with chloroquine and adjuvant interferon-τ. Parasitol Res 1992; 78: 629–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kremsner PG, Neifer S, Chaves MF, Rudolph R, Bienzle U. Interferon-τ induced lethality in the late phase ofPlasmodium vinckei malaria despite effective parasite clearance by chloroquine. Eur J Immunol 1992; 22: 2873–2878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rhodes-Feuilette A, Bellosguardo M, Druilhe P, Ballet JJ, Chousterman S, Canivet M, Peries J. The interferon compartment of the immune response in malaria: II Presence of seruminterferon gamma following the acute attack. J Interferon Res 1985; 5: 167–178.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kern P, Hemmer CJ, Damme JV, Gruss HJ, Dietrich M. Elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 serum levels as markers for complicatedPlasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Med 1989; 87: 139–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kwiatkowski D, Hill AVS, Sambou I, Twumasi P, Castracane J, Manogue KR, Cerami A, Brewster DR, Greenwood B. TNF concentration in fatal cerebral, non-fatal cerebral, and uncomplicatedPlasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet 1990; 336: 1201–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ringwald P, Peyron F, Vuillez JP, Touze JE, Le Bras J, Deloron P. Levels of cytokines in plasma duringPlasmodium falciparum malaria attacks. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 2076–2078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harpaz R, Edelman R, Wasserman SS, Levine MM, Davies JR, Sztein MB. Serum cytokine profiles in experimental human malaria. J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kremsner PG, Feldmeier H, Zotter GM, Jansen-Rosseck R, Graninger W, Rocha RM, Bienzle U. Immunological alterations in uncomplicatedPlasmodium falciparum malaria Relationship between parasitaemia and indicators of macrophage activation. Acta Trop 1989; 46: 351–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Butcher GA, Garland T, Ajdukiewicz AB, Clark IA. Plasma TNF associated with malaria in patients in the Solomon Islands. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1990; 84: 658–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Molyneux ME, Taylor TE, Wirima JJ, Grau GE. Tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and malaria. Lancet 1991; 337: 1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chizzolini C, Grau GE, Geinoz A, Schrijvers D. T-Lymphocyte interferon-gamma production induced byPlasmodium falciparum antigen is high in recently infected non-immune and low in immune subjects Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 79: 95–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kremsner PG, Zotter GM, Feldmeier H, Graninger M, Rocha RM, Rosseck RJ, Bienzle U. Immune response in patients during and after Plasmodium falciparum infection. J Inf Dis 1990; 161: 1025–1028.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grau GE, Taylor TE, Molyneux ME, Wirima JJ, Vassalli P, Hommel M, Lambert P-H. Tumor necrosis factor and disease severity in children withPlasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 1586–1591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shaffer N, Grau GE, Hedberg K, Davachi F, Lymba B, Hightower AW, Breman JG, Nguyen-Dinh P. Tumor necrosis factor and cerebral malaria. J Inf Dis 1991; 163: 96–101.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grau GE, Piguet P-F, Vassalli P, Lambert P-H. Immunol Rev Tumor-necrosis factor and other cytokines in cerebral malaria: experimental and clinical data 1989; 112: 49–70.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gifford GE, Lohmann-Matthes M-L. Gamma-interferon priming of mouse and human macrophages for induction of tumor necrosis factor production by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 78: 121–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stevenson MM, Ghadirian E. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha protects susceptible A/J mice against lethalPlasmodium chabaudi — AS infection. Infect Immun 1989; 57: 3936–3939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Taverne J, Tavernier J, Fiers W, Playfair JHJ. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor inhibits malaria parasitesin vivo but notin vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 1987; 67: 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Maheshawari RK, Czarniecki CW, Dutta GP, Puri SK, Dhawan BN, Friedman RM. Recombinant human gamma-interferon inhibits simian malaria. Infect Immun 1986; 53: 628–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Neifer S, Kremsner PG, Bienzle U. Application of anti-TNF toPlasmlaedium vinckei-infected mice is followed by an increase in parasitaemia. Acta Trop 1989; 46: 273–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hviid L, Reimart CM, Theander TG, Jepsen S, Bendtzen K. Recombinant human tumour necrosis factor is not inhibitory toPlasmodium falciparum in vitro. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1988; 82: 48–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Karunaweera ND, Grau GE, Gamage P, Carter R, Mendis KN. Dynamics of fever and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor are closely associated during clinical paroxysms inPlasmodium vivax malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 3200–3203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brockhaus M, Schoenfeld HJ, Schlaeger EJ, Hunzinger W, Lesslauer W, Loetscher H. Identification of two types of tumor necrosis factor receptors on human cell lines by monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Ac Sci USA 1990; 87: 3127–3131.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tartaglia LA, Goeddel DV. Two TNF receptors. Immunol Today 1992; 13: 151–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kern P, Hemmer CJ, Gallati H, Neifer S, Kremsner P, Dietrich M, Porzsolt F. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors correlate with parasitemia and disease severity in human malaria. J Inf Dis 1992; 166: 930–934.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kwiatkowski D, Molyneux M, Stephens S, Curtis N, Klein N, Pointaire P, Smit M, Allen R, Brewster D, Grau GE, Greenwood B. Anti-TNF therapy inhibits fever in cerebral malaria. Quart J Medicine 1993; 86: 91–98.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Graninger W, Thalhammer F, Hollenstein U, Zotter GM, Kremsner PG. Serum protein concentrations inPlasmodium falciparum malaria. Acta Trop 1992; 52: 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 antagonism. Blood 1991; 71: 1627–1652.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Curfs JHAJ, van der Meer JWM, Sauerwein RW, Eling WMC. Low dosages of interleukin-1 protect mice against lethal cerebral malaria. J Exp Med 1990; 172: 1287–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Beutler B, Milsark TW, Cerami AC. Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin. Science 1985; 229: 869–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Clark IA, Hunt NH. Evidence for reactive oxygen intermediates causing hemolysis and parasite death in malaria. Infect Immun 1983; 39: 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dockrell HM, Playfair JHL. Killing of blood-state murine malaria parasites by hydrogen peroxide. Infect Immun 1983; 39: 456–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ockenhouse CF, Schulman S, Shear HL. Induction of crisis forms in the human malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum by gamma-interferon activated, monocyte-derived macrophages. J Immunol 1984; 133: 1601–1608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Clark IA, Hunt NH, Cowden WB, Maxwell LE, Mackie EJ. Radical mediated damage to parasites and erythrocytes inPlasmodium vinckei Exp infected mice after injection of t-butyl hydroperoxide. Clin Immunol 1984; 56: 524–530.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thumwood CM, Hunt NH, Cowden WB, Clark IA. Antioxidants can prevent cerebral malaria inPlasmodium berghei-infected mice. Brit J Exp Path 1989; 70: 293–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ding AH, Nathan CF, Stuehr DJ. Release of reactive nitrogen intermediates and reactive oxygen intermediates from mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Immunol 1988; 141: 2407–2412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rockett KA, Awburn MM, Cowden WB, Clark IA. Killing ofPlasmodium falciaprum in vitro by nitric oxide derivatives. Infect Immun 1991; 59: 2280–3203.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kremsner PG, Nüssler A, Neifer S, Chaves MF, Bienzle U, Senaldi G, Grau G. Malaria antigen and cytokine-induced production of reactive nitrogen intermediates by murine macrophages: no relevance to development of experimental cerebral malaria. Immunology 1993; 78: 286–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nüssler AK, Di Silvio M, Billiar TR, Hoffman RA, Geller DA, Selby R, Madariaga J, Simmons RL. Stimulation of the nitric oxide synthase pathway in human hepatocytes by cytokines and endotoxin. J Exp Med 1992; 176: 261–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Warrell D. Pathophysiology of severefalciparum malaria in man. Parasitology 1987; 94: 853–876.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Udeinya IJ, Schmidt J, Aikawa M, Miller L, Green I. Falciparum infected erythrocytes specifically bind to cultured human endothelial cells. Science 1981; 213: 555–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Udeinya IJ, Graves P, Carter R, Aikawa M, Miller L.Plasmodium falciparum: effect of time in continuous culture on binding to endothelial cells and amelanotic melanoma cells. Exp Parasit 1985; 56: 207–214.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Smith J, Nelson JA, Gahmberg CG, Crandall I, Sherman E.Plasmodium falciparum: cytoadherence of malaria-infected erythrocytes to human brain capillary and umbilical vein endothelial cells-A comparative study of adhesive ligands. Exp Parasit 1992; 75: 269–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ockenhouse FC, Tegoshi T, Maeno Y, Benjamin C, Ho M, Kan KE, Tway Y, Win K, Aikawa M, Loble RR. Human vascular endothelial cell adhesion receptorsfor Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes: Role for endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. J Exp Med 1992; 176: 1183–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ockenhouse C, Ho M, Tandon N, van Seventer G, Shaw S, White N, Jamieson G, Chulay J, Webster K. Molecular basis of sequestration in severe and uncomplicated malaria: Differential adhesion of infected erythrocytes to CD36 and ICAM-1. J Inf Dis 1991; 164: 163–169.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Falanga PB, Butcher EC. Late treatment with anti-LFA-1 (CD11a) antibody prevents cerebral malaria in a mouse model. Eur J Immunol 1991; 21: 2259–2263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Grau GE, Pointaire P, Piguet P-F, Vesin C, Rosen H, Stamecovic I, Takei F, Vassalli P. Late administration of monoclonal antibody to leucocyte function antigen 1 abrogates incipient murine cerebral malaria. Eur J Immunol 1991; 21: 2265–2267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Eling WMC. CR Jerusalem and U Heinen-Borries Role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of endomyocardial fibrosis in murine malaria. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1984; 78: 43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Simmons D, Makgoba MW, Seeb B. ICAM, an adhesion ligand of LFA-1, is homologous to the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. Nature 1988; 331: 624–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rothlein R, Mainolfi EA, Czajkowski M, Martin S. A form of circulating ICAM-1 in human serum. J Immunol 1991; 147: 3788–3793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Grau GE, Frei K, Piguet P-F, Fontana A, Heremans H, Billiau A, Vassalli P, Lambert P-H. Interleukin 6 production in experimental cerebral malaria: modulation by anti-cytokine antibodies and possible role in hypergammaglobulinemia. J Exp Med 1990; 172: 1505–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vogels MTE, Lindley IJD, Curfs JHAJ, Eling WMC, van der Meer JWM. The effects of interleukin-8 on non-specific resistance to interfection in neutropenic and normal mice, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1993; 37: 276–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Friedland JS, Ho M, Remick GDG, Bunnag D, White NJ, Griffin GE. Interleukin-8 andPlasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993; 87: 54–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pukrittayakame S, Clemens R, Pramoolsinsap C, Karges HE, Vanijanonta S, Bunnag D, White NJ. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase inPlasmodium falciparum malaria. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1992; 86: 598–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Curfs JHAJ, Vogels MTE, Eling WMC, Van der Meer JWM, IL-1 receptor antagonist prevents cerebral malaria inPlasmodium berghei-infected mice. In: Ghezzi P, Mantovani A, editors. Pathophysiology and pharmacology of cytokines. Augusta, Georgia: Biomédical Press 1992, 105–111; Progress Biomedical Research, Vol 2, Series Editor SM Reichard.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Le, J, Vilcek J. Biology of disease Tumor necrosis factor and Interleukin-1: cytokines with multiple overlapping biological activities. Lab Invest 1987; 56: 234–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Staruch MJ, Wood DD. The adjuvanticity of interleukin-1in vivo. J Immunol 1983; 130: 2191–2194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ye K, Clark BD, Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1 downregulates gene and surface expression of Interleukin-1 receptor type I by destabilizing its mRNA, whereas Interleukin-2 increases its expression. Immunology 1992; 75: 427–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Blok WL, Vogels MTE, Curfs JHAJ, Eling WMC, Buurman WA, van der Meer JWM. Dietary fish-oil supplementation in experimental gram-negative infection and cerebral malaria in mice. JInf Dis 1992; 165: 898–903.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Editorial Fish oil Lancet, 1988; 14: 1083–1091.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lee TH, Hoover RL, Williams JD, Sterling RL Ravelese J, Spur BW, Robinson DR, Corey EJ, Lewis RA, Austen KF. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and dososahexanoic acids onin vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 1217–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wijnand M. C. Eling
    • 1
  • Peter G. Kremsner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyUniversity of NijmegenHB NijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institut für TropenmedizinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations