European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 102, Issue 4, pp 365–375 | Cite as

Rain-driven epidemics ofPhytophthora porri on leek

  • W. D. Smilde
  • M. van Nes
  • H. D. Frinking
Research Articles

Abstract

White tip disease of leek (Allium porrum), caused byPhytophthora porri, was studied in field experiments. On fields infested by soil-borne inoculum (oospores), relatively short periods of explosive disease increase alternated with periods in which apparently no new infections occurred. The analysis of rain data and disease data, using a degree-day model for incubation periods at constant temperatures, confirmed the hypothesis that disease increase ofP. porri is significantly correlated with rain; R adj 2 was 0.91, 0.41 and 0.51 in 1992, 1993 and 1994, respectively. Correlations were highest early in the season. Lack of correlation later in the season may be ascribed to the effect of lesion death, which may be caused by total or partial leaf death, by desiccation or by other fungi overgrowingP. porri, and to the effect of secondary infection by zoosporangia, which appears to be not so strongly rain-driven as primary infection. Zoosporangia were observed in fields on water-logged light-green lesions. High lesion densities of leaf tips and leaf units at 10–20 cm above the leaf axils indicated that most infections depend on free water, either in puddles or in a water basin near the leaf axils. Although disease correlates well with rain data, disease forecasts will be unreliable as long as rain forecasts are unreliable.

Key words

Allium porrum host growth degree-days incubation period splash dispersal oospores 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alofs W (1986) Het bestrijden van bladvlekken en roest in prei. Weekblad Groenten en Fruit, 19 September: 63Google Scholar
  2. Alofs W and Pijnenburg H (1988) Bodembedekking voorkomt papiervlekken. Weekblad Groenten en Fruit, 16 december: 58Google Scholar
  3. Centraal Bureau voorde Statistiek (1975–1994) Landbouwtellingen. Staatsuitgeverij,'s GravenhageGoogle Scholar
  4. Daamen RA (1989) Assessment of the profile of powdery mildew and its damage function at low disease intensities in field experiments with winter wheat. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 95: 85–105Google Scholar
  5. De Kraker J and Bosch H (eds) (1993) Teelt van prei. PAGV and IKC, Lelystad, 112ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Fitt BDL, McCartney HA and Walklate PJ (1989) The role of rain in dispersal of pathogen inoculum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 27: 241–270Google Scholar
  7. Foister CE (1931) The white tip disease of leeks and its causal fungus,Phytophthora porri n.sp., Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 30: 257–281Google Scholar
  8. Foister CE (1961) The economic plant diseases of Scotland. A survey and check list covering the years 1924–1957. Technical Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland 1: 55Google Scholar
  9. Grill D (1985) Les maladies et ravageurs du poireau. Phytoma 371: 39–41Google Scholar
  10. Ho HH (1987). Effect of hymexazol on growth and reproduction of low temperaturePhytophthora species. Mycopathologia 98: 17–20Google Scholar
  11. Legge BJ (1951) APhytophthora crown rot ofCampanula. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 34: 293–303Google Scholar
  12. Madden LV, Wilson LL, Yang X and Ellis MA (1992) Splash dispersal ofColletotrichum acutatum andPhytophthora cactorum by short-duration simulated rains. Plant Pathology 41: 427–436Google Scholar
  13. Ogilvie L and Walton CL (1941) Diseases and pests of onions and leek. Worcester City Council Agricultural Quarterly Chronicle 9: 57, 59, 61, 63, 65Google Scholar
  14. Smilde WD, Van Nes M and Reinink K (1995) Resistance toPhytophthora porri in leek and some of its wild relatives. Euphytica 83: 131–138Google Scholar
  15. Smilde WD, Van Nes M and Frinking HD () Effects of temperature onPhytophthora porri in vitro andin planta. European Journal of Phytopathology, submittedGoogle Scholar
  16. Taylor JC (1965) White tip of leeks (Phytophthora porri Foister. Plant Pathology 14: 189Google Scholar
  17. Thorold CA (1975) Black pod disease. In: Gregory PH (ed) Diseases of Cocoa (pp. 32–40) Clarendon Press, Oxford, 423 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Van Bakel JMM (1964) Papiervlekkenziekte in prei (Phytophthora porri F.). Mededelingen Directoraat Tuinbouw 27: 198–200Google Scholar
  19. Van Hoof HA (1959) Oorzaak en bestrijding van papiervlekkenziekte bij prei. Tijdschrift voor Plantenziekten 65: 37–43Google Scholar
  20. Weste G (1983) Population dynamics and survival ofPhytophthora. In: Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia S and Tsao PH (eds)Phytophthora. Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 237–257Google Scholar
  21. Yokoyama S (1976) Studies on the leaf blight of onion caused byPhytophthora porri Foister. Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Experiment Station 22: 55 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Zadoks JC and Schein RD (1979) Epidemiology and Plant Disease Management. Oxford University Press, 427 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. D. Smilde
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. van Nes
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. D. Frinking
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhytopathologyWageningen Agricultural UniversityEE WageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Vegetable and Fruit CropsDLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO)AA WageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations