European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 101–110 | Cite as

Production, survival and evaluation of solid-substrate inocula ofConiothyrium minitans againstSclerotinia sclerotiorum

  • M. P. McQuilken
  • J. M. Whipps
Research Papers

Abstract

Coniothyrium minitans grew on all ten solid-substrates (barley, barley-rye-sunflower, bran-vermiculite, bran-sand, maizemed-perlite, millet, oats, peat-bran, rice and wheat) tested, producing high numbers of germinable pycnidiospores (1.9–9.3×108 g−1 air dry inocula). All solid substrate inocula survived better in the laboratory at 5 and 15 °C than at 30 °C for at least 64 weeks.

In pot bioassays carried out in the glasshouse and field, soil incorporations of each inoculum almost completely inhibited carpogenic germination ofS. sclerotiorum. In the field bioassay, no sclerotia were recovered after 38 weeks fromC. minitans-treated pots compared to 56% from control pots. In the glasshouse bioassay, 9–30% of sclerotia were recovered after 20 weeks fromC. minitans-treated pots, but 88–100% of these were infected by the antagonist. The antagonist also spread to infect sclerotia in control pots.

In larger scale glasshouse trials, single preplanting soil-incorporations of five inocula (barley-ryesunflower, maizemeal-perlite, peat-bran, rice and wheat) controlled Sclerotinia disease in a sequence of lettuce crops, with only small differences between the types of inocula tested. At harvest,C. minitans reduced sclerotial populations on the soil surface and over 74% of sclerotia recovered fromC. minitans-treated plots were infected by the antagonist.C. minitans survived in soil in all solid-substrate inocula-treated plots for at least 39 weeks at levels of 104–105 colony forming units cm−3 soil and spread to infect over 36% of sclerotia recovered from control plots.

Key words

biological control mycoparasite sclerotia soil-borne plant pathogen 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams PB and Fravel DR (1990) Economical biological control of Sclerotinia lettuce drop bySporidesmium sclerotiorum. Phytopathology 80: 1120–1124Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed AHM and Tribe HT (1977) Biological control of white rot of onion (Sclerotium cepivorum) byConiothyrium minitans. Plant Pathology 26: 75–78Google Scholar
  3. Budge SP and Whipps JM (1991) Glasshouse trials ofConiothyrium minitans andTrichoderma species for the biological control ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum in celery and lettuce. Plant Pathology 40: 59–66Google Scholar
  4. Churchill BW (1982) Mass production of microorganisms for biological control. In: Charudattan R and Walker ML (eds), Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens (pp 139–156). John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Coley-Smith JR (1979) Survival of plant-pathogenic fungi in soil in the absence of host plants. In Schippers B and Gams W (eds), Soil-borne Plant Pathogens (pp 39–57). Academic Press, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Ebben MH (1987) Observations on the role of biological control methods within integrated systems, with reference to three contrasting diseases of protected crops. In: Cavalloro R (ed), Integrated and Biological Control in Protected Crops (pp 197–208). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang HC (1980) Control of sclerotinia wilt of sunflower by hyperparasites. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 2: 26–32Google Scholar
  8. Jackson AM, Whipps JM and Lynch JM (1991) Production, delivery systems, and survival in soil of four fungi with disease biocontrol potential. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 13: 636–642Google Scholar
  9. Jones D (1993) Viability of the soil mycoparasitic fungiTrichoderma viride andConiothyrium minitans after long-term storage. Sclerotinia Newsletter 3: 2–3Google Scholar
  10. Keinath AP, Fravel DR and Papavizas GC (1991) Potential ofGliocladium roseum for biocontrol ofVerticillium dahliae. Phytopathology 81: 644–648Google Scholar
  11. Knudsen GR, Eschen DJ, Dandurand LM and Bin L (1991a) Potential for biocontrol ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum though colonization of sclerotia byTrichoderma harzianum. Plant Disease 75: 466–470Google Scholar
  12. Knudsen GR, Eschen DJ, Dandurand LM and Wang ZG (1991b) Method to enhance growth and sporulation of pelletized biocontrol fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57: 2864–2967Google Scholar
  13. Lewis JA and Papavizas GC (1984) A new approroach to stimulate population proliferation ofTrichoderma species and other potential biocontrol fungi introduced into natural soils. Phytopathology 74: 1240–1244Google Scholar
  14. Lumsden RD and Lewis JA (1989) Selection, production, formulation and commercial use of plant disease biocontrol fungi: problems and progress. In: Whipps JM and Lumsden Rd (eds), Biotechnology of Fungi for Improving Plant Growth (pp 171–190). Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Lynch JM and Ebben MH (1986) The use of micro-organisms to control plant disease. Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement 1986. 115S–126SGoogle Scholar
  16. McQuilken MP, Whipps JM and Cooke RC (1992) Use of oospore formulations ofPythium oligandrum for biological control of Pythium damping-off in cress. Journal of Phytopathology 135: 125–134Google Scholar
  17. Merriman PR (1976) Survival of sclerotia ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 8: 385–389Google Scholar
  18. Mylchreest SJ and Wheeler BEJ (1987) A method for inducing apothecia from sclerotia ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Pathology 36: 16–20Google Scholar
  19. Purdy LH (1979)Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: History, diseases and symptomology, host range, geographic distribution and impact. Phytopathology 69: 875–880Google Scholar
  20. Ruppell EG, Baker R, Harman GE, Hubbard JP, Hecker RJ and Chet I (1983) Field tests ofTrichoderma harzianum Rifai aggr. as a biocontrol agent of seedling disease in several crops and Rhizoctonia root rot of sugar beet. Crop Protection 2: 399–408Google Scholar
  21. Şesan T and Cśep N (1991a) Prevenirea putregainlui alb (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary) la foarea şi leguminoasele anuale prin agentul biologicConiothyrium minitans Campbell. Studii si Cercetâri de Biologie, seria Biologie Vegetalâ 43: 11–17Google Scholar
  22. Şesan T and Cśep N (1991b) Prevention of white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary) on both sunflower and soybean by means of the biological agentConiothyrium minitans Campbell. In: Fokkema NJ, Hockenhull J and Jensen DF (eds), Proceeding of the EFPP/IOBC Workshop — New Approaches in Biological Control of Soil-borne Diseases (pp 60–63), 30 June–4 July 1991. Copenhagen, Denmark. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 1992/XV/1Google Scholar
  23. Sivan A, Elad Y and Chet I (1984) Biological control effects of a new isolate ofTrichoderma harzianum onPythium aphanidermatum. Phytopathology 74: 498–501Google Scholar
  24. Turner GJ and Tribe HT (1976) OnConiothyrium minitans and its parasitism ofSclerotinia species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 66: 97–105Google Scholar
  25. Whipps JM and Budge SP (1990) Screening for sclerotial mycoparasites ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mycological Research 94: 607–612Google Scholar
  26. Whipps JM and Budge SP (1992) Biological control ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum in glasshouse crops. In: Proceedings of the 1992 British Crop Protection Conference — Rest and Diseases (pp 127–132). BCPC, Farnham.Google Scholar
  27. Whipps JM, Budge SP and Ebben MH (1989) Effect ofConiothyrium minitans andTrichoderma harzianum onSclerotinia disease of celery and lettuce in the glasshouse at a range of humidities. In: Cavalloro R and Pelerents C (eds), Integrated Pest Management in Protected Vegetable Crops, Proceedings of CEC IOBC Group Meeting Cabrils (pp 233–243), 27–99 May, 1987. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  28. Whipps JM and Gerlagh M (1992) Biology ofConiothyrium minitans and its potential for use in disease biocontrol. Mycological Research 96: 897–907Google Scholar
  29. Wilson M, Crawford EK and Campbell R (1988) Biological control byTrichoderma harzianum of damping-off of lettuce caused byRhizoctonia solani. EPPO Bulletin 18: 83–89Google Scholar
  30. Zazzerini A and Tosi C (1985) Antagonistic activity of fungi isolated from sclerotia ofSclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Pathology 34: 415–421Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. P. McQuilken
    • 1
  • J. M. Whipps
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbial BiotechnologyHorticulture Research InternationalLittlehamptonUK

Personalised recommendations