Advertisement

Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 105–120 | Cite as

Dietary essential amino acids and heat increment in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

  • T. C. Kaczanowski
  • F. W. H. Beamish
Article

Abstract

Oxygen consumption attributable to apparent heat increment (AHI) was measured in relation to varying essential amino acid proportions (EAA) infused into rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss (250–450 g), induced to swim at ≈1 BL s−1. Five diets, mimicking EAA concentrations in trout whole body protein, deficient in the branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine), containing unbalanced proportions of EAAs and supplying lysine in excessive and limiting proportions, were tested. Following infusion of the experimental diets, a significant increase in oxygen consumption was observed. Changes in plasma EAAs following infusion paralleled the time course of AHI (i.e., oxygen consumption). AHI represented the equivalent of 15–32% of the gross energy intake depending on dietary EAA composition. Diets supplying EAAs similar to trout whole body protein and limiting in lysine produced the lowest AHI values, indicating efficient utilization of dietary amino acids. Higher AHI values were associated with diets deficient in the branched chain amino acids and diets supplying lysine in excess. Duration of elevated metabolism was independent of both dietary composition and energy intake. Different proportions of EAAs in the diet can increase the energy expended as AHI. In an attempt to reduce the energy liberated as AHI, attention must be paid to the quality, quantity and balance of dietary EAAs.

Keywords

heat increment essential amino acids amino acid infusion rainbow trout 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. American Public Health Association (APHA). 1989. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th edition. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Beamish, F.W.H. and Dickie, L.M. 1967. Metabolism and biological production in fish.In The Biological Basis of Freshwater Fish Production. pp. 215–242. Edited by S.D. Gerking. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. Beamish, F.W.H. 1974. Apparent specific dynamic action of largemouth bass,Micropterus salmoides. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 31: 1763–1769.Google Scholar
  4. Beamish, F.W.H., Hilton, J.W., Niimi, E. and Slinger, S.J. 1986. Dietary carbohydrate and growth, body composition and heat increment in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 1: 85–91.Google Scholar
  5. Beamish, F.W.H. and MacMahon, P.D. 1988. Apparent heat increment and feeding strategy in walleye,Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. Aquaculture 68: 73–82.Google Scholar
  6. Beamish, F.W.H. and Trippel, E.A. 1990. Heat increment: a static or dynamic dimension in bioenergetic models? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 119: 649–661.Google Scholar
  7. Brody, S. 1964. Bioenergetics and Growth. Hafner Publishing Co. Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  8. Brooke, O.G. and Ashworth, A. 1972. The influence of malnutrition on the postprandial metabolic rate and respiratory quotient. Br. J. Nutr. 27: 407–415.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, C.R. and Cameron, J.N. 1991. The induction of specific dynamic action in channel catfish by infusion of essential amino acids. Physiol. Zool. 64: 276–297.Google Scholar
  10. Buttery, P.J. and Annison, E.F. 1973. Considerations of the efficiency of amino acid and protein metabolism in animals.In The Biological Efficiency of Protein Production. pp. 141–171. Edited by J.G.W. Jones. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  11. Cho, C.Y., Bayley, H.S. and Slinger, S.J. 1976. Energy metabolism in growing rainbow trout: partition of dietary energy in high protein and high fat diets. Eur. Assoc. Animal Prodn. (EAAP) 19: 299–302.Google Scholar
  12. Coulson, R.A. and Herbert, J.D. 1974. Evidence for polypeptide synthesis in the caiman from mixtures deficient in essential amino acids. J. Nutr. 104: 1396–1406.Google Scholar
  13. Coulson, R.A., Herbert, J.D. and Hernandez, T. 1978. Energy for amino acid absorption, transport and protein synthesisin vivo. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 60A: 13–20.Google Scholar
  14. Coulson, R.A. and Hernandez, T. 1970. Protein digestion and amino acid absorption in the caiman. J. Nutr. 100: 810–826.Google Scholar
  15. Coulson, R.A. and Hernandez, T. 1979. Increase in metabolic rate of the alligator fed proteins or amino acids. J. Nutr. 109: 538–550.Google Scholar
  16. Cowey, C.B. and Sargent, J.R. 1972. Fish nutrition. Adv. Mar. Biol. 10: 383–492.Google Scholar
  17. Dickson, I.W. and Kramer, R.H. 1971. Factors influencing scope for activity and active and standard metabolism of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 56A: 37–41.Google Scholar
  18. Fickeisen, D.H. and Brown, G.W. 1977. D-amino acid oxidase in various fishes. J. Fish Biol. 10: 457–465.Google Scholar
  19. Gerrits, M.F. 1994. Aspects of the energy metabolism of red muscle in arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). M. Sc. Thesis, University of Guelph, Ontario.Google Scholar
  20. Harper, A.E., Benevenga, N.J. and Wohlueter, R.M. 1970. Effects of ingestions of disproportionate amounts of amino acids. Physiol. Rev. 50: 428–558.Google Scholar
  21. Hepher, B. 1988. Nutrition of Pond Fishes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  22. Herbert, J.D. and Coulson, R.A. 1976. Plasma amino acids in reptiles after feeding protein or amino acids, and after injecting amino acids. J. Nutr. 106: 1097–1101.Google Scholar
  23. Houston, A.H., DeWilde, M.A. and Madden, J.A. 1969. Some physiological consequences of aortic catheterization in the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 26: 1847–1856.Google Scholar
  24. Houston, A.H., Madden, J.A., Woods, R.J. and Miles, H.M. 1971a. Some physiological effects of handling and tricaine methanesulphonate anesthetization upon the brook trout,Salvelinus fontinalis. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 28: 625–633.Google Scholar
  25. Houston, A.H., Madden, J.A., Woods, R.J. and Miles, H.M. 1971b. Variations in the blood and tissue chemistry of brook trout,Salvelinus fontinalis, subsequent to handling, anesthesia and surgery. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 28: 635–642.Google Scholar
  26. Hutchinson, V.H. and Kohl, M.A. 1971. The effect of photoperiod on daily rhythms of oxygen consumption in the tropical toad,Bufo marinus. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 75: 367–382.Google Scholar
  27. Jobling, M. 1983. Towards an explanation of specific dynamic action (SDA). J. Fish Biol. 23: 549–555.Google Scholar
  28. Jobling, M. and Davies, P.S. 1980. Effects of feeding on metabolic rate, and the specific dynamic action in plaice,Pleuronectes platessa L. J. Fish Biol. 16: 629–638.Google Scholar
  29. Krebs, H.A. 1964. The metabolic fate of amino acids.In Mammalian Protein Metabolism. pp. 135–162. Edited by H. Munro and J.B. Allison. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  30. Krieger, I. 1978. Relation of specific dynamic action of food to growth in rats. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 764–768.Google Scholar
  31. LeGrow, S.M. and Beamish, F.W.H. 1986. Influence of dietary protein and lipid on apparent heat increment of rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43: 19–25.Google Scholar
  32. Lovell, T. 1989. Nutrition and Feeding of Fish. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Lusk, G. 1922. The specific dynamic action of various food factors, Medicine 1: 311–322.Google Scholar
  34. Lusk, G. 1931. The specific dynamic action. J. Nutr. 3: 519–530.Google Scholar
  35. Medland, T.E. and Beamish, F.W.H. 1985. The influence of diet and fish density on apparent heat increment of rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri. Aquaculture 47: 1–10.Google Scholar
  36. Mertz, E.T. 1972. The protein and amino acid needs.In Fish Nutrition. pp. 105–143. Edited by J.E. Halver. Academic Press. New York.Google Scholar
  37. Muir, B.S. and Niimi, A.J. 1972. Oxygen consumption of the euryhaline fish aholehole (Kuhlia sandvicensis) with reference to salinity, swimming and food consumption. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 29: 67–77.Google Scholar
  38. Murai, T. 1992. Protein nutrition of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 100: 191–207.Google Scholar
  39. National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, No. 16, Nutrient requirements of domestic animals. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Niimi, A.J. 1978. Lag adjustment between estimated and acnual physiological responses conducted in flow-through systems. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 35: 1266–1269.Google Scholar
  41. Nose, T. 1972. Changes in the pattern of free plasma amino acids in rainbow trout after feeding. Bull. Freshw. Fish. Res. Lab. 22: 137–144.Google Scholar
  42. Ogino, C. 1980. Requirements of carp and rainbow trout for essential amino acids. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46: 171–175.Google Scholar
  43. Philipson, J. 1964. A miniature bomb calorimeter for small biological samples. Oikos 15: 130–139.Google Scholar
  44. SAS Institute Inc. 1988. SAS/Stat Guide for Personal Computers, Version 6.03 Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
  45. Saunders, R.L. 1963. Respiration of the Atlantic cod. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 20: 373–386.Google Scholar
  46. Schalles, J.F. and Wissing, T.E. 1976. Effects of dry pellet diets on the metabolic rates of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 33: 2443–2449.Google Scholar
  47. Schlisio, W. and Nicolai, B. 1978. Kinetic investigations on the behavior of free amino acids in the plasma and of two aminotransferases in the liver of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii Richardson) after feeding on a synthetic composition containing pure amino acids. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 59B: 373–379.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, L.S. and Bell, G.R. 1964. A technique for prolonged blood sampling in free-swimming salmon. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 21: 711–717.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, R.J. and Panico, K.A. 1985. Automated analysis of ophthaldialdehyde derivatives of amino acids in physiological fluids by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. J. Liq. Chromat. 8: 1783–1795.Google Scholar
  50. Smith, R.R., Rumsey, G.L. and Scott, M.L. 1978. Heat increment associated with dietary protein, fat, carbohydrate and complete diets for salmonids: comparative energy efficiency. J. Nutr. 108: 1025–1032.Google Scholar
  51. Soivio, A., Westman, K. and Nyholm, K. 1972. Improved method of dorsal aorta catheterization: haematological effects followed for three weeks in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Finnish Fish. Res. 1: 11–21.Google Scholar
  52. Steele, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd Edition McGraw Hill Inc, Toronto.Google Scholar
  53. Tandler, A. and Beamish, F.W.H. 1980. Specific dynamic action and diet in largemouth bass,Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). J. Nutr. 110: 750–764.Google Scholar
  54. Tandler, A. and Beamish, F.W.H. 1981. Apparent specific dynamic action (SDA), fish weight and level of caloric intake in largemouth bass,Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). Aquaculture 23: 231–242.Google Scholar
  55. Vahl, O. and Davenport, J. 1979. Apparent specific dynamic action of food in the fishBlennius pholis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1: 109–113.Google Scholar
  56. Waiwood, K.G. and Beamish, F.W.H. 1978. Effects of copper, pH and hardness on the critical swimming performance of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii Richardson). Water Res. 12: 611–619.Google Scholar
  57. Walton, M.J., Cowey, C.B. and Adron, J.W. 1984. The effect of dietary lysine levels on growth and metabolism of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Br. J. Nutr. 52: 115–122.Google Scholar
  58. Wilhelmj, C.M. and Bollman, J.L. 1928. The specific dynamic action and nitrogen elimination following intravenous administration of various amino acids. J. Biol. Chem. 77: 127–149.Google Scholar
  59. Wilson, R.P. and Halver, J.E. 1986. Protein and amino acid requirements of fishes. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 6: 225–244.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kugler Publication bv Amsterdam 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. Kaczanowski
    • 1
  • F. W. H. Beamish
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations