Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 28–35 | Cite as

Microbial relationships in surface-mine revegetation

  • Frederick M. Rothwell
  • Don Eagleston


The establishment and interrelationships of microorganisms with soil and plant processes during reclamation are greatly influenced by the composition of the planting medium and vegetation practices. While in some instances the parent material may be used as the vegetation medium, the practice of topsoiling, particularly the direct haul method, may be beneficial in introducing microorganisms and improving the quality of the plant growth medium of spoils that are chemically or physically less desirable than the native soils. The influence of different vegetation types on soil development on surface mines may be a reflection of physioiogical differences that affect microbial development in the rhizosphere. Such differences include levels of carbohydrate translocated to the root system and/or released into the surrounding soil; the plant's effectiveness as a mycorrhizal host; and the rate of degradation of plant residues. It has become apparent that microbial interactions are an important part of plant and soil processes in reclamation. While some of the microorganisms important in plant growth and soil development can be introduced readily by management practices, the majority usually are disseminated by natural means and only gradually become a part of the microbial population. More research is needed on developing new methods or refining current procedures for early introduction of these microorganisms in reclamation practices.


Lignin Mycorrhizal Fungus Organic Amendment Azospirillum Soil Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Limstrom, G.A., ‘Forestation of strip-mined land in the Central States’, Agric. Handb. 166, U S Department of Agriculture, 1960, 74 pages.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schramm, J.E., ‘Plant colonization studies on black wastes from anthracite mining in Pennsylvania’, Am. Philos. Soc. Trans. N.S. 56 (Part 1), 1966, 1–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cundell, A.M., ‘The role of microorganisms in the Revegetation of strip-mined land in the western United States’, J. Range Manage. 30(4), July 1977, 299–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stroo, H.F., E.M. Jencks, ‘Enzyme activity and respiration in minesoils’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 1982, 548–553.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fresquez. P.R., W.C. Lindemann, ‘Soil and rhizosphere microorganisms in amended coal mine spoils’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 1982, 751–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vogel, Willis G., ‘A Guide for Revegetating Coal Minesoils in the Eastern United States’. GTR-NE-68, U S Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Broomall, PA, 1981, 190 pages.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Federal Register 48: 22100. Part 816.22, May 16, 1983.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohlsson, Karl E., Robb, Arthur E., Jr., Guindon. Clifford E., Jr., Samuel, David E., Smith. Robert L., ‘Best Current Practices for Fish and Wildlife on Surface-Mined Land in the Northern Appalachian Coal Region’, FS/OBS-81/45, U S Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, May 1982, 305 pages.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pettry, David E., Miller, W.F., Darden, James. W. ‘Reclamation of the Knob Surface Mine, Alabama. Using Selected Overburden Material’, in Symposium of Surface Mining Hydrology, Sedimentology and Reclamation. 1980, 285–291.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cross, Earle A., ‘Reclamation of Surface Mine Spoil’, The University of Alabama, The School of Mines and Energy Development, September 1981, 50 pages.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sencindiver, J.C., R. Fugill, ‘Use of alternative topsoil materials in surface mine reclamation’, in Proceedings: Surface Mining and Water Quality, Fifth Annual West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force Symposium, March 21–22, 1984, 8 pages.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eagleston, Don, C.H. Wolf, ‘P.t.-Inoculated Seedlings’ in Abandoned Mine Reclamation Symposium, Soil Conservation Society of America, All Ohio Chapter, November 1982, Chapter 7.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miller, R.M., R.E. Cameron, ‘Some effects on soil microbiota of topsoil storage during surface mining’, in Proceedings: Fourth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation', Natl. Coal Assoc./Bituminous Coal Res., 1976, 131–139.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ‘User Guide to Soils’, GTR-INT-68, U S Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ogden, UT, November 1979, 80 pages.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shafer, W.M., ‘Minesoil restoration and maturity: A guide for managing-minesoil development’, in Proceedings: Third Biennial Symposium on Surface Coal Mine Reclamation on the Great Plains, March 19–21, 1984, 172–185.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buckman, H.O., N. Brady, ‘The nature and properties of soils’, Macmillan Publ. Co., New York, 1969, 228.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilson, H.A., ‘Effect of vegetation upon aggregation in strip mine spoils’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 21, 1957, 637–640.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wullstein, L.H., ‘Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with rhizosheaths of Indian Ricegrass used in stabilization of the Slick Rock, Colorado tailings pile’ J. Range Manage. 33(3), May 1980, 204–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harris, H.D., G. Chesters. O.N. Allen, ‘Dynamics of soil aggregation’. Adv. in Agron. 18, 1966, 107–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salisbury, F.B., C.W. Ross, ‘Carbon dioxide fixation and carbohydrate synthesis’, in Plant Physiology, Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc., Chapter 10.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    DePuit, E.J., ‘Potential topsoiling strategies for enhancement of vegetation diversity on mined lands’, in Proceedings: Third Biennial Symposium on Surface Coal Mine Reclamation on the Great Plains, March 19–21, 1984, 258–272.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Farmer, Jr, R.E., M. Cunningham, M.A. Barnhil!, ‘First-year development of plant communities originating from forest topsoils placed on southern Appalachian minesoils’. J. Appl. Ecol. 19, 1982, 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davey, C.B., H.H. Krause, ‘Functions and maintenance of organic matter in forest nursery soil’, in Proceedings: North American Forest Tree Nursery Soils Workshop, July 28-August 1, 1980, 130–165.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martin, J., K. Haider, ‘Microbial degradation and stabilization of14C-labeled lignins, phenols, and phenolic polymers in relation to soil humus formation’, in Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, Chemistry, and Potential Applications. Vol. 1, CRC Press, 1980, 77–100.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kirk, T.K., ‘Effects of microorganisms on lignin’. Ann. Rev, Phytopathol. 9, 1971, 185–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cromack, Jr., K., P. Sollins, R.L. Todd. R. Fogel. A.W. Todd, W.M. Fender. M.E. Crossley, D.A. Crossley, Jr., ‘The role of oxalic acid and bicarbonate in calcium cycling by fungi and bacteria: Some possible implications for soil animals’, in Soil Organisms as Components of Ecosystems, Ecol. Bull. 25. 1977, 246–252.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Graustein, W.C., K. Cromack, Jr., P. Sollins, ‘Calcium oxalate: Occurrence in soils and effect on nutrient and geochemical cycles’, Science 198, December 1977, 1252–1254.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    DePuit, E.J., J.G. Coenenberg, ‘Responses of revegetated coal strip mine spoils to variable fertilization rates, longevity of fertilization program, and season of seeding’, Montana Agr. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. 150, Montana State Univ., 1979.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kapustka, L.A., E.L. Rice, ‘Symbiotic and asymbiotic N2-fixation in a tall grass prairie’, Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 1978, 553–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rothwell, F.M., W.G. Vogel, ‘Mycorrhizae of planted and volunteer vegetation on surface-mined sites’, USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-66, 1982, 12 pages.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Allen, E.B., ‘The role of mycorrhizae in mined land diversity’, in Proceedings: Third Biennial Symposium on Surface Coal Mine Reclamation on the Great Plains, March 19–21, 1984, 258–272.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Trappe, J.M., ‘Mycorrhizae and productivity of arid and semiarid rangelands’ in Advances in Food Producing Systems for Arid and Semiarid Lands, Academic Press, 1981, 518–599.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Trappe, J.M., R.D. Fogel, ‘Ecosystematic functions of mycorrhizae’, CO. State Univ., Range Sci. Dept, Sci. Ser. 26, 1977, 205–214.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tisdall, J.M., J.M. Oades, ‘Stabilization of soil aggregates by the root systems of ryegrass’, Aust. J. Soil Res. 17, 1979, 429–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rothwell, F.M., ‘Aggregation of surface mine soil by interaction between VAM fungi and lignin degradation products of lespedeza’, Plant and Soil (in press).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fugill, R., J.C. Sencindiver, ‘Effect of mulches and organic amendments on minesoil properties’, final report submitted to USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Berea, KY, December 1982.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Powell, C.L., J. Daniel, ‘Growth of white clover in undisturbed soils after inoculation with efficient mycorrhizal fungi’, N.Z. J. Agric. Res. 21, 1978, 675–681.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Menge, J.A., L.W. Timmer, ‘Procedures for inoculation of plants with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field’, in Methods and Principles of Mycorrhizal Research, Am. Phytopathol. Soc., 1982, 59–68.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kormanik, P.P., W.C. Bryan, R.C. Schultz, ‘Increasing endomycorrhizal fungus inoculum in forest nursery soil with cover crops’, South J. Appl. For. 4(3), August 1980, 151–153.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marx, Donald H., ’Role of Mycorrhizae in Forestation of Surface Mines’, in Trees for Reclamation in the Eastern United States Symposium Proceedings, November 1980, 109–115.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sciences and Technology Letters 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick M. Rothwell
    • 1
  • Don Eagleston
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceNortheastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area State and Private ForestryBereaUSA

Personalised recommendations