The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 65, Issue 1–2, pp 147–153 | Cite as

Erythrosin and pH gradient induced photo-voltages in bilayer membranes

  • W. E. VarnadoreJr.
  • R. T. Arrieta
  • J. R. Duchek
  • J. S. Huebner


Erythrosin and light flashes induce voltage transients across bilayer membranes in the presence of transmembrane pH gradients. Fast voltage transients, which rise in <50 nsec and fall in ∼500 nsec, are attributed to photo-deprotonation of dye sorbed in the glycerol region of phospholipid membranes. Six other halogenated xanthene dyes induce similar effects, which apparently resulted from triplet states of monoanionic dye. No photo-effects were observed with fluorescein.

Key words

bilayer membranes dye photo-deprotonation erythrosin fluorescein membrane photo-voltages xanthene dyes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Augustine, G.J., Levitan, H. 1980. Neurotransmitter release from a vertebrate neuromuscular synapse affected by a food dye.Science 207:1489–1490Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker, J.A., Duchek, J.R., Hooper, R.L., Koftan, R.J., Huebner, J.S. 1979. Lipid and salt effects on carbocyanine dye induced photo-voltages in bilayer membranes.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 553:1–10Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barltrop, J.A., Coyle, J.D. 1978. Principles of Photochemistry. pp. 49–51, John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bowers, P.G., Porter, G. 1967. Triplet state quantum yields for some aromatic hydrocarbons and xanthene dyes in dilute solution.Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 299:348–353Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cafiso, D.S., Hubbell, W.L. 1980. Light-induced interfacial potentials in photoreceptor membranes.Biophys. J. 30:243–264Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Collins, T.F., Long, E.L. 1976. Effects of chronic oral administration of erythrosine in the mongolian gerbil.Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 14:233–248Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duchek, J.R., Huebner, J.S. 1979. Voltage transients from photo-isomerizing azo dye in bilayer membranes.Biophys. J. 27:317–321Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eastman Kodak Company. 1977. pH range and color changes of Eastman indicators. Publication JJ-13, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Everitt, C.D., Haydon, D.A., 1968. Electrical capacitance of a lipid membrane separating two aqueous phases.J. Theoret. Biol. 18:371–379Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fleming, G.R., Knight, A.W.E., Morris, J.M., Morrison, R.J.S., Robinson, G.W. 1977. Picosecond fluorescence studies of xanthene dyes.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99:4306–4311Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Floyd, R.A. 1980. Erythrosine B (red dye no. 3) mediated oxidation-reduction in brain membranes.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 96:1305–1311Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holmes, W.C., Scanlan, J.T. 1927. Constitution of erythrosin and related dyes.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 49:1594–1598Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hong, F.T., Mauzerall, D. 1974. Interfacial photoreactions and chemical capacitance in lipid bilayers.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:1564–1568Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huebner, J.S. 1978. Cyanine dye structural and voltage-induced variations in photo-voltages of bilayer membranes.J. Membrane Biol. 39:97–132Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huebner, J.S. 1979. Apparatus for recording light flash induced membrane voltage transients with 10 nsec resolution.Photochem. Photobiol. 30:233–242Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huebner, J.S. 1980. Current pulse-induced voltage variations in bilayer membranes.Biophys. J. 31:279–284Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huebner, J.S., Varnadore, W.E. 1981. Halofluorescein dye and pH gradient induced photo-voltages in bilayer membranes.Biophys. J. 33:139aGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lafferman, J.A., Silbergeld, E.K. 1979. Erythrosin B inhibits dopamine transport in rat caudate synaptosomes.Science 205:410–412Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Läuger, P., Lesslauer, W., Marti, E., Richter, J. 1967. Electrical properties at biomolecular phospholipid membranes.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 135:20–32Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Logan, W.J., Swanson, J.M. 1979. Erythrosin B inhibition of neurotransmitter accumulation by rat brain homogenate.Science 206:363–364Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lozier, R.H., Bogomolni, R.A., Stoeckenius, W. 1975. Bacteriorhodopsin: A light-driven proton pump inHalobacterium halobium.Biophys. J. 15:955–962Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mailman, R.B., Ferris, R.M., Tang, F.L., Vogel, R.A., Kitts, C.D., Lipton, M.A., Smith, D.A., Mueller R.A., Breese, G.R. 1980. Erythrosin (red no. 3) and its nonspecific biochemical actions: What relation to behavioral changes?Science 207:535–537Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maloney, P.C., Lam, D.M., Wilson, T.H. 1980. Light-triggered proton movements in retinal discs from the frog.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 93:420–426Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mitchell, P. 1979. Keilin's respiratory chain concept and its chemiosmotic consequences.Science 206:1148–1159Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pooler, J.P., Oxford, G.S. 1973. Photodynamic alteration of lobster giant axons in calcium-free and calcium-rich media.J. Membrane Biol. 12:339–348Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pooler, J.P., Valenzeno, D.P. 1979. Physicochemical determinants of the sensitizing effectiveness for photooxidation of nerve membranes by fluorescein derivatives.Photochem. Photobiol. 30:491–498Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramette, R.W., 1981. Chemical equilibrium and analysis. pp. 432–433. Addison-Wesley, Reading (Mass.)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rohatgi-Mukherjee, K.K., Mukhopadhyay, A.K. 1976. Photophysical processes in halofluorescein dyes.Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 14:481–484Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shibata, M., Nakamizo, M., Kakiyama, H. 1977. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of halogen derivatives of fluorescein.Kyushu Kogyo Gijutsu Shikensho Hokoku 18:1015–1022Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stillwell, W., Doram, K. 1980. Measurement of transmembrane proton diffusion using two liposome-sequestered pH indicator dyes.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 93:326–332Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tien, H.T. 1974. Bilayer Lipid Membranes (BLM) Theory and Practice. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tien, H.T., Huebner, J.S. 1973. An analysis of flash-induced electrical transients of a BLM containing chloroplast lamella extracts.J. Membrane Biol. 11:57–74Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Trissl, H.W. 1980. Novel capacitative electrode with a wide frequency range for measurements of flash-induced changes of interface potential at the oil-water interface: Mechanical construction and electrical characteristics of the electrode.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 595:82–95Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trissl, H.W., Läuger, P. 1972. Photoelectric effects at lipid bilayer membranes: Theoretical models and experimental observations.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 282:40–54Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trissl, H.W., Montal, M. 1977. Electrical demonstration of rapid light-induced conformational changes in bacteriorhodopsin.Nature (London) 266:655–657Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Veen, F. van. 1966. Handbook of Stroboscopy. pp. 46, Gen Rad Inc., Concord (Mass.)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Watanabe, M., Asai, H. 1980. Proton release and formation of photo-intermediates after light-induced proton uptake in bovine photoreceptor-disc membranes.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 94:529–534Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    White, S.H. 1973. The surface change and double layer at their lipid films formed from neutral lipids.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 323:343–350Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wolfbeis, O.S., Schaffner, K. 1980. Solvent and acidity dependence of the absorption and fluorescence of coumestrol.Photochem. Photobiol. 32:143–148Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yound, R.C., Feldberg, S.W. 1979. Photoinitiated mediated transport of H3O+ and/or OH across glycerol monooleate bilayers doped with magnesium octaethylporphyrin.Biophys. J. 27:237–255Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. VarnadoreJr.
    • 1
  • R. T. Arrieta
    • 1
  • J. R. Duchek
    • 1
  • J. S. Huebner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Natural SciencesUniversity of North FloridaJacksonville

Personalised recommendations