The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 95–104 | Cite as

Bacteriorhodopsin in liposomes: Quantitative evaluation of ΔpH changes induced by variations of light intensity and conductivity parameters

  • Jos C. Arents
  • Klaas J. Hellingwerf
  • Karel van Dam
  • Hans V. Westerhoff


A description of ion movement and energy transduction in terms of a kinetic variant of nonequilibrium thermodynamics was subjected to experimental tests in bacteriorhodopsin liposomes. The effects of variation of light intensity, proton permeability, proton-potassium ion exchange activity, and potassium ion permeability on the steadystate pH gradient were in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the theoretical description. It is suggested that the theoretical description will be useful in other, more complex systems to gain detailed information about their energy transduction and ion permeation properties.


Light Intensity Human Physiology Exchange Activity Experimental Test Quantitative Evaluation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



5-chloro-3-tert-butyl-2′-chloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide 1799; (hexofluoro-acetonyl) acetone

Symbols Meaning Manipulated by


effective energy input of the photon constant


pH gradient (out-in) several methods


nonproton electric permeation coefficient valinomycin


electric proton leakage coefficient protonophore


electroneutral proton permeation coefficient nigericin


activity of bacteriorhodopsin light intensity


number of protons pumped per photocycle constant


inward pumping fraction preparation method


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jos C. Arents
    • 1
  • Klaas J. Hellingwerf
    • 1
  • Karel van Dam
    • 1
  • Hans V. Westerhoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biochemistry, B.C.P. Jansen InstituteUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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