The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 159–169 | Cite as

Sodium currents in the giant axon of the crabCarcinus maenas

  • M. Emilia Quinta-Ferreira
  • N. Arispe
  • E. Rojas
Article

Summary

Measurements were made of the kinetics and steady-state properties of the sodium conductance changes in the giant axon of the crabCarcinus maenas. The conductance measurements were made in the presence of small concentrations of tetrodotoxin and as much electrical compensation as possible in order to minimize errors caused by the series resistance. After an initial delay of 10–150 μsec, the conductance increase during depolarizing voltage clamp pulses followed the Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics. Values of the time constant for the activation of the sodium conductance lay on a bell-shaped curve with a maximum under 180 μsec at −40 mV (at 18°C). Values of the time constant for the inactivation of the sodium conductance were also fitted using a bell-shaped curve with a maximum under 7 msec at −70 mV. The effects of membrane potential on the fraction of Na channels available for activation studied using double pulse protocols suggest that hyperpolarizing potentials more negative than −100 mV lock a fraction of the Na channels in a closed conformation.

Key words

giant axon sodium channel voltage clamp crustacean nerve Na channel gating sodium conductance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbot, B.C., Hill, A.V., Howarth, J.V. 1958. The positive and negative heat production associated with a single impulse.Proc. R. Soc. London B 148:149–187Google Scholar
  2. Arispe, N., Quinta-Ferreira, E., Rojas, E. 1979. Gating of the sodium conductance in the giant axon of the crabCarcinus maenas.J. Physiol. (London) 295:11P-12PGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, C.M., Bezanilla, F. 1974. Charge movement associated with the opening and closing of the activation gates of the Na-channels.J. Gen. Physiol. 63:533–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chapman, J.B. 1980. Consistency between thermodynamics and the kinetics ofm, n andh in the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.J. Theor. Biol. 85:487–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cole, K.S., Hodgkin, A.L. 1939. Membrane and protoplasm resistance in the squid giant axon.J. Gen. Physiol. 22:671–687Google Scholar
  6. Cole, K.S., Moore, J. 1960. Ionic current measurements in the squid giant axon membrane.J. Gen. Physiol. 44:123–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Connor, J.A. 1975. Neural repetitive firing: A comparative study of membrane properties of crustacean walking leg axons.J. Neurophysiol. 38:922–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Connor, J.A., Walter, D., McKown, R. 1977. Neural repetitive firing. Modifications of the Hodgkin-Huxley axon suggested by experimental results from crustacean axons.Biophys. J. 18:81–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dodge, F.A., Frankenhaeuser, B. 1958. Membrane currents in isolated frog nerve fiber under voltage clamp conditions.J. Physiol. (London) 143:76–90Google Scholar
  10. Frankenhaeuser, B., Lindley, B.D., Smith, R.S. 1966. Potentiometric measurement of membrane action potentials in frog muscle fibers.J. Physiol. (London) 183:152–166Google Scholar
  11. Goldman, D.E. 1943. Potential, impedance and rectification in membranes.J. Gen. Physiol. 27:37–60Google Scholar
  12. Hille, B., Campbell, D.T. 1976. An improved Vaseline gap voltage clamp for skeletal muscle fibers.J. Gen. Physiol. 67:265–293Google Scholar
  13. Hodgkin, A.L., Huxley, A.F. 1945. Resting and action potentials in single nerve fibres.J. Physiol. (London) 104:176–195Google Scholar
  14. Hodgkin, A.L., Huxley, A.F. 1952a. The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon ofLoligo.J. Physiol. (London) 116:497–506Google Scholar
  15. Hodgkin, A.L., Huxley, A.F. 1952b. A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve.J. Physiol. (London) 117:500–544Google Scholar
  16. Hodgkin, A.L., Katz, B. 1949. The effect of sodium ion on the electrical activity of the giant axon of the squid.J. Physiol. (London) 108:37–77Google Scholar
  17. Keynes, R.D., Ritchie, J.M., Rojas, E. 1971. The binding of tetrodotoxin to nerve membranes.J. Physiol. (London) 213:235–254Google Scholar
  18. Keynes, R.D., Rojas, E. 1974. Kinetics and steady-state properties of the charged system controlling sodium conductance in the squid giant axon.J. Physiol. (London) 239:393–434Google Scholar
  19. Keynes, R.D., Rojas, E. 1976. The temporal and steady-state relationships between activation of the sodium conductance and movement of the gating particles in the squid giant axon.J. Physiol. (London) 255:157–189Google Scholar
  20. Marquardt, D.W. 1963. An algorithm for least-squares estimation of non-linear parameters.J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11:431–441Google Scholar
  21. Moore, J.W., Narahashi, T., Shaw, T.I. 1967. An upper limit to the number of sodium channels in nerve membrane?J. Physiol. (London) 188:99–105Google Scholar
  22. Neumcke, B., Nonner, W., Stämpfli, R. 1976. Asymmetrical displacement current and its relation with the activation of sodium current in the membrane of frog myelinated nerve.Pfluegers Arch. 363:193–203Google Scholar
  23. Nonner, W. 1969. A new voltage clamp method for Ranvier nodes.Pfluegers Arch. 309:176–192Google Scholar
  24. Powell, M.J.D. 1968. A FORTRAN subroutine for solving systems of non-linear algebraic equations. Harwell Report AERE-R5947, H.M. Stationery OfficeGoogle Scholar
  25. Pynsent, R.B., Rojas, E. 1979. Voltage clamp and data acquisition method for single myelinated nerve fibre work.J. Physiol. (London) 291:14P-15PGoogle Scholar
  26. Quinta-Ferreira, M.E. 1981. Ionic channels in the giant axon of the crabCarcinus maenas. Ph.D. Thesis. School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  27. Ritchie, J.M., Rogart, R.B., Strichartz, G.R. 1976. A new method for labelling saxitoxin and its binding to non-myelinated fibres of the rabbit vagus, lobster walking leg, and garfish olfactory nerves.J. Physiol. (London) 261:477–494Google Scholar
  28. Rojas, E. 1973. The conductance of a single sodium channel in squid giant axons fromLoligo.Acta Physiol. Lat. Am. 23:90–92Google Scholar
  29. Rojas, E. 1975. Gating mechanism for the activation of the sodium conductance in nerve membranes.Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. XL:305–320Google Scholar
  30. Rojas, E., Quinta-Ferreira, E. 1981. Sodium channel gating in excitable membranes. Proceedings VII International Biophysics Congress and the III Pan American Biochemistry Congress, Mexico City, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  31. Woodbury, J.W., White, S.H., Mackey, M.C., Hardy, W.L., Chang, D.B. 1970. Biochemistry. University of Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Emilia Quinta-Ferreira
    • 1
  • N. Arispe
    • 1
  • E. Rojas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biophysics, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichEngland

Personalised recommendations