Environmental Management

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 707–713 | Cite as

Reclamation of wastes contaminated by copper, lead, and zinc

  • M. H. Wong


Waste materials containing toxic levels of copper, lead, and zinc, such as mine and smelter wastes, present difficult conditions for the establishment of vegetation. This article reviews the many attempts which have been made to reclaim these wastes. Inert wastes from mining and quarrying operations, such as slate quarry waste and certain colliery shales, seem to be good materials for reclaiming wastes contaminated by copper, lead, and zinc. Organic wastes, such as sewage sludge and domestic refuse, may provide only a temporary visual improvement and stabilization of the toxic materials.

Nontolerant plant materials may often be planted directly on modern waste materials, which are less toxic than they were in the past. However, tolerant plant materials are needed for revegetating waste materials produced by early and more primitive extraction methods.

Key words

Reclamation Restoration Revegetation Metal-contaminated waste Copper Lead Zinc 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyHong Kong Baptist CollegeKowloonHong Kong

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