Environmental Management

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 271–275 | Cite as

The factor of scale in ecosystem mapping

  • Robert G. Bailey
Forum

Abstract

Ecosystems come in many scales or relative sizes. The relationships between an ecosystem at one scale and ecosystems at smaller or larger scales must be examined in order to predict the effects of management prescriptions on resource outputs. A disturbance to an ecosystem may affect smaller component ecosystems, which are encompassed in larger systems that control the operation of the smaller systems. Environmental factors important in controlling ecosystem size change in nature with the scale of observation. This article reviews those environmental factors that are thought to be useful in recognizing and mapping ecosystems at various scales.

Key words

Ecosystem Landscape ecology Resource surveys Mapping scale Maps 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bailey, R. G. 1983. Delineation of ecosystem regions.Environmental Management 7:365–373.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, R. G., R. D. Pfister, and J. A. Henderson. 1978. Nature of land and resource classification: a review.Journal of Forestry 76:650–655.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, B. V., K. S. Pregitzer, T. A. Spies, and V. H. Spooner. 1982. Ecological forest site classification.Journal of Forestry 80:493–498.Google Scholar
  4. Damman, A. W. H. 1979. The role of vegetation analysis in land classification.Forestry Chronicle 55:175–182.Google Scholar
  5. Delcourt, H. R., P. A. Delcourt, and T. Webb III. 1983. Dynamic plant ecology: the spectrum of vegetation change in space and time.Quaternary Science Reviews 1:153–175.Google Scholar
  6. Forman, R. T. T., and M. Godron. 1981. Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology.Bioscience 31:733–740.Google Scholar
  7. Gersmehl, P. J. 1981. Maps in landscape interpretation.Cartographica 18:79–115.Google Scholar
  8. Goff, F. G., F. P. Baxter, and H. H. Shugart. 1971. Spatial hierarchy for ecological modeling. US-IBP Eastern Deciduous Forest report 71-41. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 12 pp. (mimeo).Google Scholar
  9. Isachenko, A. G. 1973. Principles of landscape science and physical-geographic regionalization (English translation edited by J. S. Massey). Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, Australia. 311 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Lotspeich, F. B., and W. S. Platts. 1982. An integrated land-aquatic classification system.North American Journal of Fisheries Management 2:138–149.Google Scholar
  11. Mil'kov, F. N. 1979. The contrastivity principle in landscape geography.Soviet Geography 20:31–40.Google Scholar
  12. Miller, D. H. 1978. The factor of scale: ecosystem, landscape mosaic, and region. Pages 63–88in K. A. Hammond (ed.), Sourcebook on the environment. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  13. Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology, 3rd edn. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia. 574 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Odum, E. P. 1977. The emergence of ecology as a new integrative discipline.Science 195:1289–1293.Google Scholar
  15. Orme, A. R., and R. G. Bailey. 1971. Vegetation and channel geometry in Monroe Canyon, southern California.Yearbook of the Association Pacific Coast Geographers 33:65–82.Google Scholar
  16. Rowe, J. S. 1980. The common denominator of land classification in Canada: an ecological approach to mapping.Forestry Chronicle 56:19–20.Google Scholar
  17. Rowe, J. S., and J. W. Sheard. 1981. Ecological land classification: a survey approach.Environmental Management 5:451–464.Google Scholar
  18. Troll, C. 1971. Landscape ecology (geoecology) and biogeocenology—a terminology study.Geoforum 8:43–46.Google Scholar
  19. Walter, H., and E. Box. 1976. Global classification of natural terrestrial ecosystems.Vegetatio 32:75–81.Google Scholar
  20. Webster, J. S. 1979. Hierarchical organization of ecosystems. Pages 119–129in E. Halfon (ed.), Theoretical systems ecology. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Wiken, E. B., and G. Ironside. 1977. The development of ecological (biophysical) land classification in Canada.Landscape Planning 4:273–275.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert G. Bailey
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington Office Land Management Planning StaffUSDA Forest ServiceFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations