Environmental Management

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 165–170 | Cite as

Simulated grazing responses on the proposed prairies National Park

  • William J. Parton
  • R. Gerald Wright
  • Paul G. Risser
Research
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

The tallgrass prairie version of the ELM Grassland Model was used to evaluate the potential impact of establishing a tallgrass prairie National Park in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. This total ecosystem model simulates (a) the flow of water, heat, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the ecosystem and(b) the biomass dynamics of plants and consumers. It was specifically developed to study the effects of levels and types of herbivory, climatic variation, and fertilization upon grassland ecosystems. The model was used to simulate the impact of building up herds of bison, elk, antelope, and wolves on a tallgrass prairie. The results show that the grazing levels in the park should not be decreased below the prepark grazing levels (moderate grazing with cattle) and that the final grazing levels in the park could be maintained at a slightly higher level than the prepark grazing levels.

Key words

ELM simulation model grazing effects Introduced animals Tallgrass prairie U.S. National Park service 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bright, J. W. 1975. The proposed prairie national park.Landscape Architecture.65: 438–511.Google Scholar
  2. Cole, C. V., G. S. Innis, and J. W. B. Stewart. 1977. Simulation of phosphorus cycling in semiarid grasslands.Ecology 58: 1–15.Google Scholar
  3. Dahlman, R. C., J. S. Olson, and K. Doxtader. 1969. The nitrogen economy of grasslands and dune soils. InProceedings of the Conference on Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen. National Academy of Sciences, Washington. D.C. Pp. 54–82.Google Scholar
  4. Halloran, A. F. 1961. American bison weights and measurements from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge.Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Sciences 41: 212–218.Google Scholar
  5. Hulbert, I., 1961. Fire and litter effects in an undisturbed bluestem prairie in Kansas.Ecology 50: 874–877.Google Scholar
  6. Hunt, H. W. 1977. A simulation model for decomposition in grasslands.Ecology 58: 469–484.Google Scholar
  7. Innis, G. S. 1978.Grassland simulation model. Ecological Studies, 26. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  8. Kelting, R. W. 1954. Effects of moderate grazing on the composition and plant production of a native tallgrass prairie in Central Oklahoma.Ecology 35: 200–206.Google Scholar
  9. Kucera, C., R. Dahlman, and N. Koelling. 1967. Total net productivity in turnover on an energy basis for a tallgrass prairie.Ecology 48: 536–541.Google Scholar
  10. Old, S. 1970. Microclimate, fire and plant production in an Illinois prairie.Ecological Monographs 39: 355–384.Google Scholar
  11. Parton, W. J., J. S. Singh, and D. C. Coleman. 1978. A model of production and turnover of roots in shortgrass prairie.Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 515–542.Google Scholar
  12. Peden, D., G. Van Dyne, R. Rice, and R. Hansen. 1974. Eutrophic ecology of bison on the shortgrass plains.Journal of Plant Ecology 11: 489–498.Google Scholar
  13. Renss, J. O., and G. S. Innis. 1977. A grassland nitrogen flow simulation model.Ecology 58: 379–388.Google Scholar
  14. Risser, P. G., E. C. Birney, H. D. Blocker, S. W. May, W. J. Parton, and J. A. Wiens.The True Prairie Ecosystem. Dowden, Hutchinson, & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Rodell, C. F. 1977. A grasshopper model for a grassland ecosystem.Ecology 58: 227–245.Google Scholar
  16. Swift, D. M., and N. R. French. 1972. Basic Field Data Collection Procedures for the Grassland Biome 1972 Season,US/IBP Grassland Biome Tech. Rep. No. 145. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins.Google Scholar
  17. Wicklow, J. R. 1975. Comparative expense to nitrogen deficiency of a tropical and temperate grass in the interrelationship between photosynthesis, growth and accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates.Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 23: 104–112.Google Scholar
  18. Wright, R. G. 1979. The use of spatial simulation models in evaluating land-use and resource management strategies in the proposed Alaskan park. In R. M. Linn (Ed.),Proceedings of the First Conference on Scientific Research in the National Parks, Vol. II, New Orleans, November 9–13, 1976, U.S. Dept. of Interior, Washington, D.C. Pp. 1077–1080.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Parton
    • 1
  • R. Gerald Wright
    • 2
  • Paul G. Risser
    • 3
  1. 1.Natural Resource Ecology LaboratoryColorado State UniversityFort Collins
  2. 2.U.S. Department of InteriorNational Park ServiceAnchorage
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of OklahomaNorman

Personalised recommendations