Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 17–30 | Cite as

Copper cycles and CuSO4 algicidal capacity in two California lakes

  • John F. Elder
  • Alexander J. Horne
Research

Abstract

A new reservoir in southern California and a large eutrophic lake in northern California were the sites for an investigation of copper (Cu) in aquatic systems, with attention focused upon toxicity of Cu to algae. Results of bioassay experiments showed significant copper depression of chlorophyll a levels, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation at concentrations of 5–10μg//. Blue-green algae are especially susceptible to copper toxicity, primarily because of the inhibition of nitrogen fixation. Theoretical considerations show that Cu is likely to be strongly complexed in natural fresh waters, but not chemically precipitated. Field measurements following a Cu algicide treatment at the reservoir confirmed the expected stability of dissolved copper, showing elevated concentrations persisting for several weeks. Our present information about copper in aquatic systems permits descriptions of various pathways that eventually lead to the sediments. The algicidal effectiveness of copper is quite variable but it is likely to be greatest in lakes where nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae are abundant.

Key words

Eutrophication Copper sulfate Aquatics Bioassay Algicide Blue-green Algae Biogeochemical cycling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Ahlgren, I. 1970. Limnological studies of Lake Norrviken, a eutrophicated Swedish lake. II. Phytoplankton and its production. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Hydrologie 32:353–396.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, R. T., and J. H. Ryther. 1969. Organic chelators: factors affecting primary production in the Cromwell Current upwelling. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 3:191–199.Google Scholar
  3. Brezonik, P. L., P. A. Brauner, and W. Stumm. 1976. Trace metal analysis by anodic stripping voltammetry: effect of sorption by natural and model organic compounds. Water Research 10:605–612.Google Scholar
  4. Brooks, R. R., B. J. Presley, and I. R. Kaplan. 1967. APDC-MIBK extraction system for the determination of trace elements in saline waters by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Talanta 14:809–816.Google Scholar
  5. Chau, Y. K., and K. Lum-Shue-Chan. 1974. Determination of labile and strongly bound metals in lake water. Water Research 8:383–388.Google Scholar
  6. Elder, J. F., S. K. Perry, and F. P. Brady. 1975. Application of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence to trace metal analysis of natural waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9:1039–1042.Google Scholar
  7. Erickson, S. J., T. E. Maloney, and J. H. Gentile. 1970. Effect of nitrilotriacetic acid on the growth and metabolism of estuarine phytoplankton. J. Water Pollut. Contr. Fed. 42:R329–335.Google Scholar
  8. Ferguson, J. and B. Bubela. 1974. The concentration of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions by particulate algal matter. Chem. Geol. 13:163–186.Google Scholar
  9. Ferstenberg, L. B., P. M. Stokes, and B. Silverberg. 1975. An electron microscope study of copper inScenedesmus. Manuscript presented at the International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Toronto, October 1975. Abstract. C-298–C230 p.Google Scholar
  10. Fitzgerald, G. B. 1963. Field tests on the duration of algicides in swimming pools. J. Environ. Health 25:319–325.Google Scholar
  11. Fitzgerald, G. B., and S. L. Faust. 1963. Factors affecting the algicidal and algistatic properties of copper. Appl. Microbiol. 11:345–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fogg, G. E., and D. F. Westlake. 1955. The importance of extracellular products of algae in freshwater. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 12:219–232.Google Scholar
  13. Gächter, R., K. Lum-Shue-Chan, and Y. K. Chau. 1974. Complexing capacity of the nutrient medium and its relation to inhibition of algal photosynthesis by copper. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Hydrologie 35:252–261.Google Scholar
  14. Gardiner, J. 1976. Complexation of trace metals by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in natural waters. Water Research 10:507–514.Google Scholar
  15. Gibbs, R. J. 1973. Mechanisms of trace metal transport in rivers. Science 180:71–73.Google Scholar
  16. Gibson, C. E. 1972. The algicidal effect of copper on a green and a blue-green alga and some ecological implications. J. Appl. Ecol. 9:513–518.Google Scholar
  17. Goldman, C. R. 1972. The role of minor nutrients in limiting the productivity of aquatic ecosystems. Pages 21–38in G. E. Likens, ed. Nutrients and eutrophication: the limiting nutrient controversy. Spec. Symp. Vol. I. Amer. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr.Google Scholar
  18. Goldman, C. R., N. J. Williams, and A. J. Horne. 1975. Prospects for micronutrient control of algal populations. Pages 97–105in P. L. Brezonik and J. L. Fox, eds. Proc. of the symp. on water quality management through biological control. University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  19. Groth, V. P. 1971. Untersuchungen über einige Spurenelemente in Seen. Arch. Hydrobiol. 68:305–375.Google Scholar
  20. Hasler, A. D. 1949. Antibiotic aspects of copper treatment of lakes. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 39:97–103.Google Scholar
  21. Helz, G. R., R. J. Huggett, and J. M. Hill. 1975. Behavior of Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb discharged from a wastewater treatment plant into an estuarine environment. Water Research 9:631–636.Google Scholar
  22. Horne, A. J., and C. R. Goldman, 1972. Nitrogen fixation in Clear Lake, California. I. Seasonal variation and the role of heterocysts. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17:678–692.Google Scholar
  23. Horne, A. J., and C. R. Goldman. 1974. Suppression of nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae in a eutrophic lake with trace additions of copper. Science 183:409–411.Google Scholar
  24. Iskandar, I. K., and D. R. Keeney. 1974. Concentration of heavy metals in sediment cores from selected Wisconsin lakes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 8:165–170.Google Scholar
  25. Kocurova, E. 1966. The application of the algicide CA 350 in the Lubi Reservoir near Trebic, Czechoslovakia. Hydrobiologia 28:223–240.Google Scholar
  26. Lallatin, R. D. 1975. Clear Lake water quality data. Department of Water Resources, Northern District, State of California, Sacramento. 321 pp.Google Scholar
  27. MacKenthun, K. M., and H. L. Cooley. 1952. The biological effect of copper sulfate treatment upon lake ecology. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 41:177–187.Google Scholar
  28. Manahan, S. E., and M. J. Smith. 1973. Copper micronutrient requirements for algae. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7:829–833.Google Scholar
  29. Marker, A. F. H. 1972. The use of acetone and methanol in the estimation of chlorophyll in the presence of phaeophytin. Freshwater Biol. 2:361–385.Google Scholar
  30. Mortimer, C. H. 1941. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes. J. Ecol. 29:280–329.Google Scholar
  31. Ramamoorthy, S., and D. J. Kushner. 1975. Heavy metal binding sites in river water. Nature 256:399–401.Google Scholar
  32. Saward, D., A. Stirling, and G. Topping. 1975. Experimental studies on the effects of copper on a marine food chain. Mar. Biol. 29:351–361.Google Scholar
  33. Sillen, L. G., and A. E. Martell, 1964. Stability constants of metal-ion complexes. Spec. Publ. No. 17. The Chemical Society, London. 754 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Steemann Nielsen, E., L. Kamp-Nielsen, and S. Wium-Andersen. 1969. The effect of deleterious concentrations of copper on the photosynthesis ofChlorella pyrenoidosa. Physiol. Plant. 22:1121–1133.Google Scholar
  35. Steemann Nielsen, E., and S. Wium-Andersen. 1970. Copper ions as poison in the sea and freshwater. Mar. Biol. 6:93–97.Google Scholar
  36. Stiff, M. J. 1971a. Copper/bicarbonate equilibria in solutions of bicarbonate ion at concentrations similar to those found in natural water. Water Research 5:171–176.Google Scholar
  37. Stiff, M. J. 1971b. The chemical states of copper in polluted fresh water and a scheme of analysis to differentiate them. Water Research 5:585–599.Google Scholar
  38. Stumm, W., and J. J. Morgan, 1970. Aquatic chemistry: an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural waters. Wiley-Interscience, New York. 583 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Sylva, R. N. 1976. The environmental chemistry of copper (II) in aquatic systems. Water Research 10:789–792.Google Scholar
  40. Telitchenko, M. M., G. V. Tsytsarin, and Ye. L. Shirokova. 1972. Trace elements and algal “bloom”. Hydrobiol. J. 6:1–6.Google Scholar
  41. Weissner, W. 1962. Inorganic micronutrients. Pages 267–286in R. A. Lewin, ed. Physiology and biochemistry of algae. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Wurtsbaugh, W. A. and A. J. Horne. Effects of low copper levels on nitrogen fixation and growth of natural associations of planktonic blue-green algae. (In preparation).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Elder
    • 1
  • Alexander J. Horne
    • 1
  1. 1.Sanitary Engineering Research LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaRichmond

Personalised recommendations