When to measure resting values in studies of children's cardiovascular reactivity
Investigations suggesting that the order of obtaining resting and cardiovascular reactivity measurements moderates values have provided inconsistent results and have not analyzed data from children; the generalizability of results is uncertain. In this investigation, all children enrolled in the eighth-grade classrooms of the public schools of an entire county (n=451) participated in standardized reactivity assessments. The order of resting and reactivity measurements was randomized by examination day (a total of 19 days). Analyses indicated that all comparisons of order effects on mean resting blood pressure and heart rate, as well as reactivity (both change from resting and absolute values and both mean and maximal values), were nonsignificant. Results indicate that measurement order is not always a necessary consideration in studies of reactivity; the conditions under which measurement order is a consideration requires clarification.
Key Wordschildren cardiovascular reactivity blood pressure heart rate methodology
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Berenson, G. S., Wattigney, W. A., Tracy, R. E., Newman, W. P., Srinivasan, S. R., Webber, L. S., Dalferes, E. R., and Strong, J. P. (1992). Atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries and cardiovascular risk factors in persons aged 6 to 30 years and studied at necropsy (the Bogalusa Heart Study).Am. J. Cardiol. 70: 851–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Geus, E. J. C., van Doornen, L. J. P., and Orlebeck, J. F. (1993). Regular exercise and aerobic fitness in relation to psychological make-up and physiological stress reactivity.Psychosom. Med. 55: 3347–363.Google Scholar
- Krantz, D. S., and Ratliff-Crain, J. (1989). The social context of stress and behavioral medicine research: Instructions, experimenter effects, and social interactions. In Schneiderman, N., Weiss, S. M., and Kaufmann, P. G. (eds.),Handbook of Research Methods in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine, Plenum, New York, pp. 383–392.Google Scholar
- Murphy, J. K., Alpert, B. S., and Walker, S. S. (1994). Consistency of ethnic differences in children's pressor reactivity: 1987–1992.Hypertension 23 (Suppl I): I-152–I-155.Google Scholar
- Obrist, P. A. (1981).Cardiovascular Psychophysiology: A Perspective, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
- SAS Institute (1985)SAS User's Guide: Statistics, 5th ed., SAS Institute, Cary, NC.Google Scholar
- Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children (1987). Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children — 1987.Pediatrics 79: 1–25.Google Scholar
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991).Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar