Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 501–514 | Cite as

Acculturation and cigarette smoking among African American adults

  • Elizabeth A. Klonoff
  • Hope Landrine
Article

Abstract

The relationship between acculturation and cigarette smoking among African Americans was examined with 444 adults. Results revealed that African American smokers were more traditional (less acculturated) than their nonsmoking counterparts, irrespective of gender, and that acculturation was a better predictor of smoking than status variables such as income and education. The prevalence of smoking among traditional African Americans was 33.6% and similar to the national data (33.2%), whereas the prevalence of smoking among acculturated African Americans was 15.3%; 68.49% of African American smokers were highly traditional. These findings suggest that acculturation is a factor in smoking among African Americans and highlight the need for further exploration of the role of acculturation in African American health and health-related behavior.

Key Words

African Americans Blacks cigarette smoking acculturation culture 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control (1987). Cigarette smoking in the United States, 1986.MMWR 36: 581–585.Google Scholar
  2. Centers for Disease Control (1988). Cigarette smoking among adults—United States.MMWR 40: 757–759, 765.Google Scholar
  3. Center for Disease Control (1991). Differences in the age of smoking initiation between Blacks and Whites—United States, 1991.MMWR 40: 754–757.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, S. E., and Lichenstein, E. (1990). Perceived stress, quitting smoking, and smoking relapse.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 49: 648–658.Google Scholar
  5. Cummings, M. K., Gioino, G., and Mendicino, A. J. (1987). Cigarette advertising and Black-White differences in brand preference.Public Health Rep. 102: 698–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis, R. M., Healy, P., and Hawk, S. A. (1990). Information on tar and nicotine yields on cigarette packages.Am. J. Public Health 80: 551–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Department of Health and Human Services (1987)Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health, Vol. 1. Executive Summary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. Department of Health and Human Services (1990a).Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Publication No. 91-50212, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Department of Health and Human Services (1990b).Prevention '89/'90: Federal Programs and Progress (1990), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Health and Human Services (1995).Health United States, 1994, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Publication No. PHS 95-1232, Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  11. Dressler, W. W. (1985). The social and cultural context of coping.Social Sci. Med. 21: 499–506.Google Scholar
  12. Epstein, L. H., and Perkins, K. A. (1988). Smoking, stress and coronary heart disease.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 56: 342–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fiore, M. C., Novotny, T. E., Pierce, J. P., Hatziandreau, E. J., Patel, K. M., and Davis, R. M. (1989). Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States—the changing influence of gender and race.JAMA 261: 49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gottlieb, N. H., and Green, L. W. (1987). Ethnicity and lifestyle risk.Am. J. Health Promot. 2(1): 3745.Google Scholar
  15. Herbert, J. R., and Kabat, G. C. (1988). Menthol cigarettes and esophageal cancer.Am. J. Public Health 78: 986–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Jepson, C., Kessler, L. G., Portnoy, B., and Gibbs, T. (1991). Black-White differences in cance prevention knowledge and behavior.Am. J. Public Health 81: 501–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kabat, G. C., Morabia, A., and Wynder, E. L. (1991). Comparison of smoking habits of Blacks and Whites in a case-control study.Am. J. Public Health 79: 1415–1416.Google Scholar
  18. Klesges, R. C., Somes, G., Pascale, R. W., et al. (1988). Knowledge and beliefs regarding the consequences of cigarette smoking and their relationships to smoking status in a biracial sample.Health Psychol. 7: 387–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Landrine, H. (1995).Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  20. Landrine, H., and Klonoff, E. A. (1994). The African-American Acculturation Scale: Development, reliability, and validity.J. Black Psychol. 20(2): 104–127.Google Scholar
  21. Landrine, H., and Klonoff, E. A. (1995a). The African-American Acculturation Scale, II: Cross validation and short form.J. Black Psychol. 21(2): 124–152.Google Scholar
  22. Landrine, H., and Klonoff, E. A. (1995b). The African-American Acculturation Scale: Origins and present status. In Jones, R. L. (ed.),Handbook of Tests and Measurements for Black Populations, Cobb & Henry, Hampton, VA (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Landrine, H., and Klonoff, E. A. (1996).African-American Acculturation: Deconstructing Race and Reviving Culture, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  24. Marin, G., Perez-Stable, E. J., and Marin, B. V. (1989). Cigarette smoking among San Francisco Hispanics.Am. J. Public Health 79: 196–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Markides, K. S., Coreil, J., and Ray, L. A. (1987). Smoking among Mexican-Americans.Am. J. Public Health 77: 708–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin, R. V., Cummings, S. R., and Coates, T. J. (1990). Ethnicity and smoking: differences in White, Black, and Asian medical patients who smoke.Am. J. Prev. Med. 6: 194–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McCord, C., and Freeman, H. P. (1990). Excess mortality in Harlem.N. Eng. J. Med. 322: 173–177.Google Scholar
  28. McWhorter, W. P., Boyd, G. M., and Mattson, M. E. (1990). Predictors of quitting smoking: The NHANES I follow-up experience.J. Clin. Epidemiol. 43: 1399–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Neighbors, H. W., Jackson, J. S., and Bowman, P. J. (1983). Stress, coping, and Black mental health: Preliminary findings from a national study.Prev. Hum. Serv. 2(3): 5–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Novotny, T. E., Warner, K. E., Kendrick, J. S., and Remington, P. L. (1988). Smoking by Blacks and Whites: Socioeconomic and demographic differences.Am. J. Public Health 78: 1187–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Orleans, C. T., Schoenbach, V. J., Salmon, M. A., et al. (1989). A survey of smoking and quitting patterns among Black Americans.Am. J. Public Health 79: 176–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Perkins, K. A., and Grobe, J. E. (1992). Increased desire to smoke during acute stress.Br. J. Addict. 87: 231–234.Google Scholar
  33. Pomerleau, O. F., and Pomerleau, C. S. (1991). Research on stress and smoking: Progress and problems.Br. J. Addict. 86: 599–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Remington, P. L., Formen, M. R., Gentry, E. M., Marks, J. S., Hogelin, G. C., and Trowbridge, F. L. (1985). Current smoking trends in the United States.JAMA 253: 2975–2978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Revel, A. D., Warburton, D. M., and Wesnes, K. (1985). Smoking as a coping strategy.Addict. Behav. 10: 209–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rivo, M. L., Kofic, V., Schwartz, E., Levy, M. E., and Tuckson, R. V. (1989). Comparisons of Black and White smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs in the District of Columbia.J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 81: 1125–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rogers, R. R., and Crank, J. (1988). Ethnic differences in smoking patterns: Findings from NHIS.Public Health Rep. 103: 387–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Royce, J. M., Hymowitz, N., Corbett, K., Hartwell, T. D., and Orlandi, M. A. (1993). Smoking cessation factors among African Americans and Whites.Am. J. Public Health 83: 220–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Shadel, W. G., and Mermelstein, R. J. (1993). Cigarette smoking under stress: The role of coping expectancies among smokers in a clinic-based smoking cessation program.Health Psychol. 12: 443–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sidney, S., Tekawa, I., and Friedman, G. D. (1989). Mentholated cigarette use among multiphasic examinees, 1976–1986.Am. J. Public Health 79: 1415–1416.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth A. Klonoff
    • 1
  • Hope Landrine
    • 2
  1. 1.Behavioral Health InstituteCalifornia State UniversitySan Bernardino
  2. 2.Public Health FoundationCity of Industry

Personalised recommendations