Research in Experimental Medicine

, Volume 167, Issue 2, pp 149–158 | Cite as

Rat gastric mucosal oxygen tension, ulcer index, plasma gastrin and glucagon following restraint stress. Influence of vagotomy, splanchnicotomy and exogenous secretin

  • P. O. Schwille
  • W. Schellerer
  • H. Steiner
  • M. Reitzenstein


Restraint stress ulcers in rats were developed and procedures evaluated designed at preservation of intact gastric microcirculation (pO2).

Neither prior truncal vagotomy, splanchnicotomy nor combined dissection of abdominal autonomic nerves were effective in preventing the stress mediated fall of mucosal pO2 and the rise in plasma glucagon. The ulcer index remained elevated and gastrin essentially was unchanged. Prophylactic injection of increasing doses (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 U/kg) secretin maintained microcirculation at pO2-levels subnormal for unstressed animals (Vmax 15.53 mm Hg; Km. 0.99 U/kg), but simultaneously brought about a continuous rise in serum gastrin. Up to 8 U/kg plasma glucagon was higher than in saline control groups reaching a peak value with 2 U/kg when ulcer index showed its nadir. Secretin therapy (4, 8 U/kg) markedly improves both mucosal pO2 and ulcer index.

It is suggested that breakdown of gastric microcirculation may not be solely responsible for stress ulcer development.

Key words

gastric stress ulcer mucosal oxygen tension vagotomy/splanchnicotomy secretin gastrin/glucagon 







ulcer index


partial oxygen tension of gastric mucosa


plasma pancreatic glucagon


serum gastrin


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    AGUILAR-PARADA, E., EISENTRAUT, A.M., UNGER, R.H.: Pancreatic glucagon secretion in normal and diabetic subjects. Am. J. Med. Sci.257 415 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BEIJER, H.J.M., HULSTAERT, P.F., BROUWER, F.A.S., CHARBON, G.A.: Secretin: dose-dependent selective increase of pancreaticoduodenal blood flow in the anesthetized dog. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    BLOOM, S.R., VAUGHAN, N.J.A., RUSSEL, R.C.G.: Vagal control of glucagon release in man. Lancet, September 7th, 546 (1974)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    DEMLING, L., CLASSEN, M.: The influence of gastrointestinal hormones on local blood flow and H-ion concentration of the human gastric mucosa. In: The influence of gastric secretion; L.S. Semb & J. Myren editors; p 18, Universitetsforlaget (1968)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DOWD, J.E., RIGGS, D.S.: A comparison of estimates of Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants from various linear transformations. J. biol. Chem.240 864 (1965)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    FASTH, S., FILIPSSON, S., HALTEN, L., MARTINSON, J.: The effect of gastrointestinal hormones on small intestinal motility and blood flow. Experientia29 982 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    GEORGE, D.T., RAYFIELD, E.J.: 1-Dopa induced plasma glucagon release. J. clin. Endocr.39 618 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    HANSKY, J., SOVENY, C., KORMAN, M.G.: The effect of glugagon on serum gastrin. Gut14 457 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    HASE, T., MOSS, B.J.: Microvascular changes of gastric mucosa in the development of stress ulcer in rats. Gastroenterology65 224 (1973)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    JORPES, J.E., MUTT, V.: IV. Influence of secretin, CCK and glucagon on gastric secretion. In: Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Pankreozymin and Gastrin; J.E. Jorpes & V. Mutt editors; p. 98 Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag 1973Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    KONTUREK, S.J., DEMITRESCU, T., RADECKI, T., THOR, P., PUCHER, A.: Effect of glucagon on gastric and pancreatic secretion and peptic ulcer formation in cats. Dig. Dis.19 557 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    LIN, T.M., SPRAY, G.F.: Inhibitory effect of glucagon on gastric acid secretion induced by gastrin and its derivatives in dogs and rats. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn.191 88 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    LIN, T.M.: Inhibition of meal-induced gastric acid secretion by glucagon. Arch. inter. Pharmacodyn.204 361 (1973)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    MUNGER, B.L.: Histology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of pancreatic A-cells. In: Glucagon; P.J. Lefebvre & R.H. Unger editors; p. 7, Oxford-New York-Toronto-Sidney-Braunschweig: Pergamon Press 1972Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    NAKAMURA, K., KAZUYOSHI, J., KUSANO, M., HAYASHI, S.: Acute and long-term effects of vagotomy on gastric mucosal blood flow. In: Vagotomy, lastest advances; F. Holle a. S. Andersson editors; p. 108, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag 1974Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    NASCA, S., MIGNON, M., GRAMATICA, L., ACCARY, J.P., BONFILS, S.: Secretin effect on gastrin, gastric secretion in dogs with chronic antral stimulation. Amer. J. Physiol.228 1775 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    OSTERLOH, G., LAGLER, F., STAEMLER, M., HELM, F.: Pharmakologische und toxikologische Untersuchungen über Benzilsäure-ester-methylsulfat — ein neues Spasmolytikum. Arzneimittel-Forschg.16 901 (1966)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    RAYFIELD, E.J., GEORGE, D.T., EICHNER, H.L., HSU, T.H.: 1-Dopa stimulation of glucagon secretion in man. N. Engl. J. Med.293 589 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    ROBERT, A., PHILIPPS, J.P., NEZAMIS, J.E.: Production by restraint of gastric ulcers and of hydrothoray in the rat. Gastroenterology51 75 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    SALES, J., NORTON, L., NOLAN, P., RANKIN, J., EISEMAN, B.: Gastric mucosal ischemia in experimental stress ulcer. J. surg. Res.18 65 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    SCHELLERER, W., SCHWILLE, P.O., HERMANEK, P., SAMBERGER, N.M., REITZENSTEIN, M., SCHOLZ, D., WAGNER, W.: Neue Vorstellungen zur Pathogenese des Stress-Ulcus. Langenbecks Arch. klin. Chir. Suppl. S. 91 (1974)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    SCHUMER, W., MILLER, B., NICHOLS, R.L., MCDONALD, G.O., NYHUS, M.L.: Metabolic and microcirculatory effects of glucagon on hypovolemic shock. Arch. Surg.107 176 (973)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    SCHWILLE, P.O., SCHELLERER, W., REITZENSTEIN, M., HERMANEK, P.: Hyperglucagonemia, hypocalcemia and diminished gastric blood flow — evidence for an etiological role in stress ulcer formation of rat. Experientia30 824 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    SCHWILLE, P.O., STEINER, H., SAMBERGER, N.M., SCHELLERER, W.: Role of calcitonin in stress ulcer formation of various rat models. Preliminary report. Res. exp. Med.165 291 (1975)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    WARRICK, M., LIN, T.M.: Action of glucagon and atropine on mucosal blood flow of resting fundic pouches of dogs. Life Sci.17 333 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. O. Schwille
    • 1
  • W. Schellerer
  • H. Steiner
  • M. Reitzenstein
  1. 1.Chirurgische Universitätsklinik Mineralstoffwechsel- und HormonlaborMaximiliansplatzErlangenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations