Research in Experimental Medicine

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 21–33 | Cite as

Hemorrhagic shock in the dog

I. Correlation Between Survival and Severity of Shock
  • M. H. Schoenberg
  • G. Smedegård
  • B. Gerdin
  • K. Messmer
  • K. -E. Arfors
Original Papers


A prerequisite elucidating the pathomechanism of hemorrhagic shock are reproducible experimental models, leading to a predictable outcome. Two concepts have been reported to be a good predictor for the outcome both employing a fixed hypotension level: total oxygen deficit and shed blood volume uptake. To correlate these two models we subjected 31 dogs to a standardized hemorrhagic shock procedure. Besides determination of acid-base status, hematocrit, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output, these two parameters were measured continuously. Seventeen dogs survived the shock procedure, 14 died within 24 h. During shock, neither oxygen deficit nor any other parameter mentioned above correlated with the final outcome of the shock state. The only significant difference between surviving and non-surviving animals during this period was the amount of uptake. The non-surviving dogs exhibited a higher uptake volume, indicating an incipient collapse of the microcirculation. Terminating the duration of hypotension at an uptake volume of 5% of the maximum shed blood, all animals survived, while after an uptake volume of 15% about 50% of the dogs died. Using uptake volumes of various degrees in a hemorrhagic shock model as the endpoint of the hypotensive stress, it seems possible to produce reliable survival rates.

Key words

Hemorrhagic shock Dogs Oxygen deficit Volume uptake Survival rate 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. Schoenberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Smedegård
    • 1
  • B. Gerdin
    • 1
    • 3
  • K. Messmer
    • 4
  • K. -E. Arfors
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental MedicinePharmacia, UppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of LübeckLübeckFederal Republic of Germany
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity HospitalUppsalaSweden
  4. 4.Department of Experimental SurgeryUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergFederal Republic of Germany

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