Hemorrhagic shock in the dog
- 31 Downloads
A prerequisite elucidating the pathomechanism of hemorrhagic shock are reproducible experimental models, leading to a predictable outcome. Two concepts have been reported to be a good predictor for the outcome both employing a fixed hypotension level: total oxygen deficit and shed blood volume uptake. To correlate these two models we subjected 31 dogs to a standardized hemorrhagic shock procedure. Besides determination of acid-base status, hematocrit, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output, these two parameters were measured continuously. Seventeen dogs survived the shock procedure, 14 died within 24 h. During shock, neither oxygen deficit nor any other parameter mentioned above correlated with the final outcome of the shock state. The only significant difference between surviving and non-surviving animals during this period was the amount of uptake. The non-surviving dogs exhibited a higher uptake volume, indicating an incipient collapse of the microcirculation. Terminating the duration of hypotension at an uptake volume of 5% of the maximum shed blood, all animals survived, while after an uptake volume of 15% about 50% of the dogs died. Using uptake volumes of various degrees in a hemorrhagic shock model as the endpoint of the hypotensive stress, it seems possible to produce reliable survival rates.
Key wordsHemorrhagic shock Dogs Oxygen deficit Volume uptake Survival rate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 6.Jesch F, Sunder-Plassmann L, Messmer K (1973) Die Bedeutung des ‘Uptake’ im experimentellen hämorrhagischen Schock. Res Exp Med 159:141–151Google Scholar
- 7.Jones CE, Crowell JW, Smith EE (1968) A cause-effect relationship between oxygen-deficit and irreversible hemorrhagic shock. Surg Gynecol Obstet 127:13–96Google Scholar
- 10.Rush BF, Rosenberg JC, Spences FC (1965) Changes in oxygen consumption in shock. J Surg Res 5:252–255Google Scholar
- 12.Vivaldi E, Macinelli S, Günther B (1983) Experimental hemorrhagic shock in dogs: standardization. Res Exp Med 182:127–137Google Scholar
- 13.Vladeck BC, Bassin R, Kark AE, Shoemaker WC (1976) Rapid and slow hemorrhage in man. Ann Surg 173:331–336Google Scholar