Advertisement

Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 93–105 | Cite as

Biofeedback treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: Preliminary results

  • Kathleen M. Rice
  • Edward B. Blanchard
  • Michael Purcell
Original Articles

Abstract

Forty-five individuals with generalized anxiety (38 with GAD as defined by DSM-III) were randomized to 4 treatment conditions or a waiting list control. Patients received 8 sessions of either frontal EMG biofeedback, biofeedback to increase EEG alpha, biofeedback to decrease EEG alpha, or a pseudomeditation control condition. All treated subjects showed significant reductions in STAI-Trait Anxiety and psychophysiologic symptoms on the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist. Only alpha-increase biofeedback subjects showed significant reductions in heart rate reactivity to stressors at a separate psychophysiological testing session. Decreased self-report of anxiety was maintained at 6 weeks posttreatment.

Descriptor Key Words

Generalized anxiety disorder EMG biofeedback EEG alpha biofeedback 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1978).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition, Revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Attanasio, V., Andrasik, F., Blanchard, E. B., & Arena, J. G. (1984). Psychometric properties of the SUNY Revision of the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 245–259.Google Scholar
  4. Barlow, D. H., Blanchard, E. B., Vermilyea, J. A., Vermilyea, B. B., & DiNardo, P. A. (1986). Generalized anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder: Description and reconceptualization.American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 40–44.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H., Cohen, A. S., Waddell, M. T., Vermilyea, B. B., Klosko, J. S., Blanchard, E. B., & DiNardo, P. A. (1984). Panic and generalized anxiety disorders: Nature and treatment.Behavior Therapy, 15, 431–449.Google Scholar
  6. Barlow, D. H., Craske, M. G., Cerny, J. A., & Klosko, J. S. (1989). Behavioral treatment of panic disorder.Behavior Therapy.20, 261–282.Google Scholar
  7. Barlow, D. H., Vermilyea, J., Blanchard, E. B., Vermilyea, B. B., DiNardo, P. A., & Cerny, J. A. (1985). The phenomenon of panic.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 320–328.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., & Emery, G. (1985).Anxiety disorders and phobia: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Blowers, C., Cobb, J., & Mathews, A. (1987). Generalized anxiety: A control treatment study.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 493–502.Google Scholar
  10. Borkovec, T. D., & Matthews, A. M. (1988). Treatment of non-phobic anxiety disorders: A comparison of non-directive, cognitive, and coping desensitization therapy.Journal of consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 877–884.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, D. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461–470.Google Scholar
  12. Dahlstrom, W. G., & Welsh, G. S. (1960).An MMPI handbook: A guide to use in clinical practice and research. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hardt, J. V., & Kamiya, J. (1978). Anxiety change through electroencephalographic alpha feedback seen only in high anxiety subjects.Science, 201, 79–81.Google Scholar
  14. Holroyd, K. A., Andrasik, F., & Noble, J. (1980). Comparison of EMG biofeedback in a credible pseudo therapy in treatment tension headache.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 3, 29–39.Google Scholar
  15. Plotkin, W. B. (1976). On the self-regulation of the occipital alpha rhythm: Control strategies, states of consciousness, and the role of physiological feedback.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 66–99.Google Scholar
  16. Plotkin, W. B., & Rice, K. M. (1981). Biofeedback as a placebo: Anxiety reduction facilitated by training in either suppression or enhancement of alpha brain waves.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 590–596.Google Scholar
  17. Rachman, S. (1988). Panics and their consequences: Review and prospect. In S. Rachman and J. Maser (Eds.),Panic: Psychological perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Rachman, S., & Levitt, K. (1985). Panics and their consequences.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 585–600.Google Scholar
  19. Rice, K. M., & Blanchard, E. B. (1982). Biofeedback in the treatment of anxiety disorders.Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 557–577.Google Scholar
  20. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970).STAI manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen M. Rice
    • 1
  • Edward B. Blanchard
    • 1
  • Michael Purcell
    • 1
  1. 1.State University of New York at AlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations