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Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 563–581 | Cite as

Problems in Himalayan geology

  • M. N. Saxena
AufsÄtze

Abstract

The Central Crystalline Axis of the Great Himalaya holds clues to the solution of many problems dealing with the crystallines, metamorphics and geological contrasts encountered in the areas to the north and south of the Axis. The problems discussed include criteria for deciphering the stratigraphy in the Himalayan zone to the south of the Crystalline Axis, age of Jutogh and Chail groups, their relationship with each other and with the Crystalline Axis, nature of the Simla Slates, Jaunsar, Blaini, Infra-Krol, and Krol formations, unfossiliferous nature of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sediments, relationship between the Lower, Middle and Upper Tertiaries and the age, presence and absence, and also the cause of metamorphism. It has been found that high grade metamorphism is not a Tertiary phenomenon. Very low grade metamorphism in the sedimentaries and the absence of plutonic intrusives from the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks indicate that magmatism, regional metamorphism and orogeny are not always mutually associated in space and time. Orogenic and epeirogenic episodes other than Cretaceous-Tertiary hold clues to many problems of Himalayan Geology.

Keywords

Grade Metamorphism High Grade Metamorphism Mesozoic Sediment Himalayan Geology Himalayan Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

Die zentrale kristalline Achse des Gro\en Himalaya bietet den Schlüssel für die Lösung vieler Probleme für die im Norden und Süden gelegenen Metamorphite und die geologischen GegensÄtze. Neue Daten für die Deutung der Stratigraphie in der Himalaya-Zone südlich der kristallinen Achse, das Alter der Jutogh- und der Chail-Gruppe, ihre Beziehung untereinander und zur kristallinen Achse, die Natur der Simla Slates sowie der Jaunsar-, Blaini-, Infra-Krol- und Krol-Formation, die Fossilleere der palÄozoischen und mesozoischen Sedimente, die Beziehung zwischen unterem, mittlerem und oberem TertiÄr und schlie\lich Alter, Vorkommen und Fehlen sowie die Ursache der Metamorphose werden gegeben. Hochgradige Metamorphose ist nicht an das TertiÄr gebunden. Niedriggradige Metamorphose in den Sedimenten und das Fehlen plutonischer Intrusiva aus palÄozoischen, mesozoischen und tertiÄren Sedimentgesteinen weisen darauf hin, da\ Magmatismus, regionale Metamorphose und Orogenese nicht immer zeitlich und rÄumlich miteinander verknüpft sind. Orogene und epirogene Episoden au\erhalb von Kreide und TertiÄr können wichtig für die Himalaya-Geologie sein.

Résumé

La zone axiale cristalline du Grand Himalaya apporte la clé pour la solution de nombreux problèmes concernant les métamorphites situées au Nord et au Sud, et les contrastes géologiques qu'elles présentent. De nouvelles données sont apportées sur la stratigraphie dans la zone de l'Himalaya au sud de l'axe cristallin, sur l'âge des groupes de Jutogh et de Chail, sur leurs relations mutuelles et avec l'axe cristallin, sur la nature des formations des phyllades de Simla, de Jaunsar, de Blaini, de l'Infrala nature des formations des phyllades de Simla, de Jaunsar, de Blaini, de l'Infra-Krol et de Krol, sur l'absence de fossiles dans les sédiments du PaléozoÏque et du MésozoÏque sur la présence et l'absence du métamorphisme, ainsi que sur sa cause. Le métamorphisme de degré élevé n'est pas lié au Tertiaire. Le métamorphisme de degré faible dans les sédiments et l'absence d'intrusions plutoniques dans les roches sédimentaires paléozoÏques, mésozoÏques et tertiaires montrent que le magmatisme, le métamorphisme régional et l'orogenèse ne sont pas toujours associés dans l'espace et le temps. Les épisodes orogéniques et épeirogéniques survenant en dehors du Crétacique et du Tertiaire peuvent Être importants pour la géologie himalayenne.

кРАткОЕ сОДЕРжАНИЕ

цЕНтРАльНАь кРИстАл лИжАцИОННАь Ось БОль шИх гИМАлАЕВ ДАЕт НАМ клУЧ к РАжРЕшЕНИУ МНОгИх п РОБлЕМ МЕтАМОРФНых п ОРОД И гЕОлОгИЧЕскИх пРОтИ ВОРЕЧИИ НА УгЕ И сЕВЕРЕ. пОлУЧЕ Ны НОВыЕ ДАННыЕ, пРОлИ ВАУЩИЕ сВЕт НА стРАтИгРАФИУ УжНОИ ЧАстИ гИМАлАИс кОИ ОсИ кРИстАллИжАц ИИ, ВОжРАст гРУпп Jutogh И Chail, Их ВжАИМОсВьжь МЕж ДУ сОБОИ И с ОсьУ кРИстАллИжАцИИ, пРИР ОДУ слАНцЕВ Simla И ФОРМАцИИ Jaunsar, Blaini, Infra-Kroll & Kroll, Отс УтстВИЕ ОкАМЕНЕлОст ЕИ В пАлЕОжОИскИх И МЕжО жОИскИх ОсАДОЧНых пО РОДАх, сВьжь МЕжДУ слОьМИ НИжНЕгО, сРЕДНЕгО И ВЕРхНЕгО т РЕтИЧНОгО пЕРИОДА, А т АкжЕ пРИЧИНы МЕтАМОРФИжМ А. МЕтАМОРФИжМ ВысОкОИ стЕпЕНИ НЕ сВ ьжАН с тРЕтИЧНыМ пЕРИ ОДОМ. МЕтАМОРФИжМ НИжкОИ стЕпЕНИ В ОсАДОЧНых п ОРОДАх И ОтсУтстВИЕ плУтОНИЧЕскИх ИНтРУ жИВОВ В пАлЕОжОИскИх, МЕжОжОИскИх И тРЕтИЧ Ных ОсАДОЧНых пОРОДА х пОДЧЕРкИВАУт, ЧтО ВРЕ МЕННАь И пРОстРАНстВЕННАь с Вьжь МЕжДУ МАгМАтИжМ ОМ, РЕгИОНАльНыМ МЕтАМО РФИжМОМ И ОРОгЕНЕжОМ ИМЕЕтсь НЕ ВсЕгДА. ОРОгЕННыЕ И ЁпИРОгЕННыЕ сОБытИь ВНЕ МЕлОВОгО И тРЕтИЧНОгО пЕРИОДО В МОгУт ОкАжАтьсь ВАж НыМИ Дль пОжНАНИь гЕОлОгИИ гИ МАлАЕВ.

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Copyright information

© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Saxena
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Advanced Study in GeologyPanjab UniversityChandigarh-14India

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