Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 425–432 | Cite as

Some pharmacokinetic parameters of doxycycline in East African goats after intramuscular administration of a long-acting formulation

  • I. M. Ole-Mapenay
  • E. S. Mitema


A compartmental and non-compartmental study was carried out on five adult goats following intramuscular administration of doxycycline at 20 mg/kg bodyweight. The concentration of the drug in serum was determined by a microbiological assay employingBacillus cereus varmycoides (ATCC 11778) as the test organism. The mean serum concentration (Cmax) and the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) were 1.87 µg/ml and 0.85 h, respectively. Using compartmental analysis, the plasma concentration-time curve of doxycycline best fitted a three-compartment open model with first-order absorption. A three-phase disposition of doxycycline was found, the terminal elimination half-life being approximately 40 h.

The statistical moment theory was mainly used for non-compartmental analysis. The value obtained for the mean residence time (MRT) was 16.41 h. The mean values for the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss), determined by compartmental and non-compartmental analyses, were 8.73 and 13.19 L/kg, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences when the major pharmacokinetic parameters were compared.

It was concluded that the pharmacokinetic behaviour of doxycycline in goats after intramuscular administration is characterized by a three-compartment model with a slow terminal elimination phase. Based on current knowledge, this could be due to enterohepatic recycling and/or flip-flop kinetics. The study indicated that a single intramuscular administration of 20 mg/kg of doxycycline may only provide therapeutic concentrations for up to 24 h owing to slow absorption at the injection site.


doxycycline goat intramuscular pharmacokinetics 



American Type Culture Collection


total area under the plasma concentration-time curve


area under the curve of the product from time zero to infinity


total body clearance






mean residence time


minimum inhibitory concentration


polyvinyl pyrolidone


volume of distribution


volume of distribution at steady state


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aronson, A.L., 1980. Pharmacotherapeutics of the newer tetracyclines.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,176, 1061–1068Google Scholar
  2. Benet, L.Z. and Gelaizi, R.L., 1979. Non-compartmental determination of the steady-state volume of distribution.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,68, 1071–1074Google Scholar
  3. Chang, H.R., Comte, R. and Pechere, J., 1990.In vitro andin vivo effects of doxycycline onToxoplasma gondii.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy,34, 775–780Google Scholar
  4. Dornbush, A.C. and Abbey, A., 1972. Microbiological assay of the tetracyclines. In: F. Kavanagh (ed.),Analytical Microbiology, vol. II, (Academic Press, New York), 365–383Google Scholar
  5. Dunne, A., 1985. JANA: a new iterative polyexponential curve stripping programme.Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine,20, 269–275Google Scholar
  6. Garcia-Ovando, H., Prieto, G. and Errecalde, C., 1991. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline given by the intravenous route in calves.Veterinaria-Argentina,8, 312–315Google Scholar
  7. Immelman, A. and Dreyer, G., 1982. The use of doxycycline to control heart water in sheep.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association,53, 23–24Google Scholar
  8. Kutler, K.L. and Simpson, J.E., 1978. Relative efficacy of two oxytetracycline formulations and doxycycline in the treatment of acute anaplasmosis in splenectomized calves.American Journal of Veterinary Research,39, 347–349Google Scholar
  9. Maritim, A.C., Sohlberg, S., Lindqvist, K. and Lokken, P., 1986. A comparison of two oxytetracycline preparations (Aquacycline and Terramycin 100) with regard to absorption characteristics, local tissue reaction and residues following dewlap injections in calves.Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica,27, 361–369Google Scholar
  10. Metzler, C.M. and Weiner, D.L., 1986.PC-NONLIN User's Guide, version V02. (Statistical Consultants, Lexington, KY)Google Scholar
  11. Michel, G., Mosset, J. and Fautan, F., 1979. Serum kinetics of doxycycline polyphosphate in dogs.European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics,1, 43–48Google Scholar
  12. Nouws, J.F.M., Smulders, A. and Rappaline, M., 1990. A comparative study on irritation and residue aspects of five oxytetracycline formulations administered intramuscularly to calves, pigs and sheep.Veterinary Quarterly,13, 129–138Google Scholar
  13. Ole-Mapenay, I.M., 1993.Effects of Pasteurella pneumoniaon the pharmacokinetic profile of doxycycline in goats, (MSc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya)Google Scholar
  14. Owen, L.N., 1965. Pharmacology of tetracyclines.Veterinary Bulletin,34, 187–196Google Scholar
  15. Raghuram, T.C. and Krishnaswamy, R., 1982. Pharmacokinetic and plasma steady state levels of doxycycline in undernutrition.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology,14, 785–789Google Scholar
  16. Riond, J.L. and Riviere, J.E., 1990. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic inertness of doxycycline in young pigs.American Journal of Veterinary Research,51, 1271–1275Google Scholar
  17. Riond, J.L., Tyczkowska, K. and Riviere, J.F., 1989. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic inertness of doxycycline in calves with mature or immature rumen function.American Journal of Veterinary Research,50, 1329–1333Google Scholar
  18. Riond, J.L., Vaden, S.I. and Riviere, J.E., 1990. Comparative pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in cats and dogs.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics,13, 415–425Google Scholar
  19. Van Heerden, J. and Immelman, A., 1979. The use of doxycycline in the treatment of canine ehrlichiosis.Journal of the South African Veterinary Association,50, 241–244Google Scholar
  20. Welling, P.C., 1986. Binding of drugs to plasma proteins. In: P.C. Welling (ed.),Pharmacokinetics: Processes and Mathematics, (American Chemical Society, Washington DC), 82–96Google Scholar
  21. Wilson, R.C., Kemp, D.T., Kitzman, J.V. and Goetsch, D.D., 1988. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in dogs.Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research,52, 12–14Google Scholar
  22. Xia, W., Gyrd-Arlington, N. and Nielsen, P., 1983. Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters for two oxytetracycline preparations in pigs.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics,6, 113–120Google Scholar
  23. Yamaoka, K., Nakagawa, T. and Uno, T., 1978. Statistical moments in pharmacokinetics.Journal of Pharmacology and Biopharmacy,6, 547–558Google Scholar
  24. Ziv, G. and Sulman, F.G., 1974. Analysis of pharmacokinetic properties of nine tetracycline analogues in dairy cows and ewes.American Journal of Veterinary Research,35, 1197–1201Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers bv 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. M. Ole-Mapenay
    • 1
  • E. S. Mitema
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations