Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 347–357 | Cite as

Serum C-reactive protein and immune responses in dogs inoculated withBordetella bronchiseptica (phase I cells)

  • S. Yamamoto
  • T. Shida
  • M. Honda
  • Y. Ashida
  • Y. Rikihisa
  • M. Odakura
  • S. Hayashi
  • M. Nomura
  • Y. Isayama


Eight Beagle dogs were inoculated intrabronchially with 5×109 live, avirulent cells ofBordetella bronchiseptica L-414 strain (phase I cells) (B. bronchiseptica) to investigate the serum levels of their C-reactive protein, the white blood cell counts, the antibody responses toB. bronchiseptica in the sera and tracheal secretions, and the effects of prednisolone given to four of the dogs on C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC) and immune responses. In two Beagle dogs inoculated intrabronchially with sterile physiological saline, the concentrations of CRP and the WBC counts did not increase. CRP was markedly increased one day after inoculation in the dogs inoculated withB. bronchiseptica to 385.0–720.0 µg/ml (mean 498±132 µg/ml) in the group given theB. bronchiseptica inoculation only, and to 372.0–649.0 µg/ml (mean 551±106 µg/ml) in the group treated with prednisolone following inoculation ofB. bronchiseptica, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CRP levels were 23–95 times the pre-inoculation values, which indicated that prednisolone had no effect on the production of CRP. In the prednisolone-treated group, the WBC count increased and stayed at an increased level for approximately 12 days. An indirect fluorescent antibody test led to the detection of anti-B. bronchiseptica IgM and IgG antibodies in the sera from 5 days afterB. bronchiseptica inoculation and S-IgA and IgG anti-B. bronchiseptica antibodies in the tracheal secretions on the day after the challenge exposure toB. bronchiseptica. The increase in CRP after challenge exposure toB. bronchiseptica was significantly (p<0.05) smaller than that found after the first inoculation ofB. bronchiseptica.


antibody Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchopneumonia C-reactive protein dogs 



C-reactive protein


enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


filamentous haemagglutinin


indirect fluorescent antibody


white blood cell(s)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bemis, D.A., Carmichael, L.E. and Appel, M.J., 1977. Naturally occurring respiratory disease in a kennel caused byBordetella bronchiseptica.Cornell Veterinarian (supplement),67, 282–293Google Scholar
  2. Bey, R.F., Shade, F.J., Goodnow, R.A. and Johnson, R.C., 1981. Intranasal vaccination of dogs with live avirulentBordetella bronchiseptica: Correlation of serum agglutination titer and the formation of secretory IgA with protection against experimentally induced infectious tracheobronchitis.American Journal of Veterinary Research,42, 1130–1132Google Scholar
  3. Bollet, A.J., 1959. Plasma glycoproteins, mucoproteins and mucopolysaccharides.Archives of Internal Medicine,104, 152–160Google Scholar
  4. Caspi, D., Baltz, M., Snel, F., Gruys, E., Niv, D., Batt, R.M., Munn, E.A., Buttress, N. and Pepys, M.B., 1984. Isolation and characterization of C-reactive protein from the dog.Immunology,53, 307–313Google Scholar
  5. Caspi, D., Snel, F.W.J.J., Batt, R.M., Bennett, D., Rutteman, G.R., Hartman, E.G., Baltz, M.L., Gruys, E. and Pepys, M.B., 1987. C-reactive protein in dogs.American Journal of Veterinary Research,48, 919–921Google Scholar
  6. Claus, D.R., Osmond, A.P. and Gewurz, H., 1976. Radioimmunoassay of human C-reactive protein and levels in normal sera.Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine,87, 120–128Google Scholar
  7. Conner, J.G., Eckersall, P.D., Ferguson, J. and Douglas, T.A., 1988. Acute phase response in the dog following surgical trauma.Research in Veterinary Science,45, 107–110Google Scholar
  8. Forrest, B.D., LaBrooy, J.T., Robinson, P., Dearlove, C.E. and Shearman, D.J., 1991. Specific immune response in the human respiratory tract following oral immunization with live typhoid vaccine.Infection and Immunity,59, 1206–1209Google Scholar
  9. Jasper, D.E. and Jain, N.C., 1965. The influence of adrenocorticotropic hormone and prednisolone upon marrow and circulating leukocytes in the dog.American Journal of Veterinary Research,26, 844–850Google Scholar
  10. Killinger, A.H., Weisiger, R.M., Helper, L.C. and Mansfield, M.E., 1978. Detection ofMoraxella bovis antibodies in the SIgA, IgG and IgM classes of immunoglobulin in bovine lacrimal secretions by an indirect fluorescent antibody test.American Journal of Veterinary Research,39, 931–934Google Scholar
  11. Kushner, I. and Mackiewicz, A., 1987. Acute phase proteins as disease markers.Disease Markers,5, 1–11Google Scholar
  12. Mallya, R.K., de Beer, F.C., Berry, H., Hamilton, E.D.B., Mace, B.E.W. and Pepys, M.B., 1982. Correlation of clinical parameters of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis with serum concentration of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Journal of Rheumatology,9, 224–228Google Scholar
  13. Mason, M.J., Gillett, N.A. and Bice, D.E., 1989. Comparison of systemic and local immune responses after multiple pulmonary antigen exposures.Regional Immunology,2, 149–157Google Scholar
  14. Maury, C.P.J., 1985. Comparative study of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein in disease.Clinical Science,68, 233–238Google Scholar
  15. Moore, G.E., Mahaffey, E.A. and Hoenig, M., 1992. Hematologic and serum biochemical effects of long-term administration of anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone in dogs.American Journal of Veterinary Research,53, 1033–1037Google Scholar
  16. Morley, J.J. and Kushner, I., 1982. Serum C-reactive protein levels in disease.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,389, 406–417Google Scholar
  17. Ndung'u, J.M., Eckersall, P.D. and Jennings, F.W., 1991. Evaluation of the concentration of acute phase proteins in dogs infected withTrypanosoma brucei.Acta Tropica,49, 77–85Google Scholar
  18. Peltola, H. and Rasanen, J.A., 1982. Quantitative C-reactive protein in relation to erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fever and duration of antimicrobial therapy in bacteraemic disease of childhood.Journal of Infection,5, 257–267Google Scholar
  19. Putto, A., Ruuskanen, O., Meurman, O., Ekblad, H., Korvenranta, H., Mertsola, J., Peltola, H., Sarkkinen, H., Viljanen, M.K. and Halonen, P., 1986. C reactive protein in the evaluation of febrile illness.Archives of Disease in Childhood,61, 24–29Google Scholar
  20. Rose, F.V. and Cebra, J.J., 1985. Isotype commitment of B cells and dissemination of the primed state after mucosal stimulation withMycoplasma pulmonis.Infection and Immunity,49, 428–434Google Scholar
  21. Schultz, R.D., 1978. Current canine vaccination programs: Results of a questionnaire.Cornell Veterinarian (supplement),68, 62–69Google Scholar
  22. Shade, F.J. and Goodnow, R.A., 1979. Intranasal immunization of dogs againstBordetella bronchiseptica-induced tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) with modified live-Bordetella bordetella vaccine.American Journal of Veterinary Research,40, 1241–1243Google Scholar
  23. Shahin, R.D., Amsbaugh, D.F. and Leef, M.F., 1992. Mucosal immunization with filamentous hemaglutinin protects againstBordetella pertussis respiratory infection.Infection and Immunity,60, 1481–1488Google Scholar
  24. Tagata, K., 1984.Studies on canine C-reactive protein (PhD thesis, Azabu University, Kanagawa, Japan)Google Scholar
  25. Thompson, D., Milford-Ward, A. and Whicher, J.T., 1992. The value of acute phase protein measurements in clinical practice.Annals of Clinical Biochemistry,29, 123–131Google Scholar
  26. Tillett, W.S. and Francis, T., 1930. Serological reactions in pneumonia with a nonprotein somatic fraction of pneumococcus.Journal of Experimental Medicine,52, 561–571Google Scholar
  27. Weissman, D.N., Bice, D.E., Siegel, D.W. and Schuyler, M.R., 1990. Murine lung immunity to a soluble antigen.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology,2, 237–330Google Scholar
  28. Whicher, J.T., Chambers, R.E., Higginson, J., Nashef, L. and Higgins, P.G., 1985. Acute phase response of serum amyloid A protein and C reactive protein to the common cold and influenza.Journal of Clinical Pathology,38, 312–316Google Scholar
  29. Yamamoto, S., Tagata, K., Nagahata, H., Ishikawa, Y., Morimatsu, M. and Naiki, M., 1992. Isolation of canine C-reactive protein and characterization of its properties.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology,30, 329–339Google Scholar
  30. Yamamoto, S., Abe, N., Santsuka, H., Shida, T., Kishida, K., Kuwajima, S., Yamada, M., Morimatsu, M. and Naiki, M., 1993a. Efficient preparation of monospecific anti-canine CRP serum and purification of canine CRP by affinity chromatography.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology,36, 293–301Google Scholar
  31. Yamamoto, S., Shida, T., Miyaji, S., Santsuka, H., Fujise, H., Mukawa, K., Furukawa, E., Nagae, T. and Naiki, M., 1993b. Changes in serum C-reactive protein levels in dogs with various disorders and surgical traumas.Veterinary Research Communications,17, 85–93Google Scholar
  32. Yamamoto, S., Shida, T., Tagata, K., Otabe, K., Furukawa, E., Nagae, T., Awaya, T., Sarikaputi, M. and Naiki, M., 1994. Determination of C-reactive protein in serum and plasma from healthy dogs with pneumonia by ELISA and slide reversed passive latex agglutination test.Veterinary Quarterly,16, 74–77Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers bv 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Yamamoto
    • 1
  • T. Shida
    • 3
  • M. Honda
    • 2
  • Y. Ashida
    • 4
  • Y. Rikihisa
    • 5
  • M. Odakura
    • 1
  • S. Hayashi
    • 1
  • M. Nomura
    • 1
  • Y. Isayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Immunology, Faculty of Environmental Health, School of Veterinary MedicineAzabu UniversitySagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Hygiene, Faculty of Environmental Health, School of Veterinary MedicineAzabu UniversitySagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Radiology, School of Veterinary MedicineAzabu UniversitySagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  4. 4.Second Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, School of Veterinary MedicineAzabu UniversitySagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary MedicineOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations