Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp 183–226 | Cite as

Distribution, affiliation and derivation of rare-element granitic pegmatites in the Canadian Shield

  • Petr Černý
Article

Abstract

Rare-element pegmatites are widespread in four provinces of the Canadian Shield. The pegmatite population of each province displays typical structural control, igenous affiliation, mineralogy and exonomic potential.

In the Superior Province, peraluminous granites and associated pegmatites (2.7–2.55 Ga) are found along deep faults within greenstone belts, at subprovincial boundaries, and in metasedimetary troughs. Many fields attain high fractionation and enrichment in Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn>Ti, Ta>Nb, Mn>Fe, B, P, F. Pollucite and the low-pressure Lialuminosilicate petalite are relatively common. Metatonalitic basement and keels of greenstone belts are the probable protoliths of the fertile granites in this polycyclic province. Rareearth pegmatites with U, Th or Mo are subordinate and related to both juvenile and S-type granites.

In the Slave Province, parent granites (2.6-2.4 Ga) are emplaced in volcanic-sedimentary sequences along batholithic margins or crossfold axes over remobilized basement faults. High-pressure spodumene-bearing pegmatites are typical, enriched in Li, Rb, Be, Ta≷Nb and poor in Cs, Mn, Sn, Ti, B, F. The fertile melts were probably generated at the interface of the basement and metavolcanicmetasedimentary sequence, during re-activation of basement faults.

In the Churchill Province, pegmatite fields (1.8-1.7 Ga) are scattered in greenstone belts and metasedimentary fold belts in a variety of tectonic styles. Pegmatites with Be, Nb>Ta are the most common; enrichment in Li, Rb, Cs is scarce. Lithologies generating diverse granite-pegmatite suites include reworked Archean basement, derived sediments, juvenile Aphebian crust or intraoceanic deposits.

In the Grenville Province, most pegmatites (1.1-0.9 Ga) are related to syntectonic syenites and largely anorogenic granites emplaced along incipient rifts. Peraluminous to subalkalic granites and pegmatites carry U, Th, Nb, Y, REE, F mineralization; Be is subordinate, Li extremely rare. Derivation from depleted lower crust is indicated for most localities, but a part of the pegmatite population seems to be transitional between muscovite and rare-element clases.

Differences in age, crustal components and evolution of individual provinces are reflected in the tectonomagmatic derivation and petrology of their granite-pegmatite systems. Sources, evolution and emplacement of the fertile melts control the geochemistry, phase composition, mineralization and economics of the pegmatites.

Keywords

Greenstone Belt Canadian Shield Granitic Pegmatite Grenville Province Anorogenic Granite 

Zusammenfassung

In vier Bezirken des Kanadischen Schildes sind Pegmatite mit seltenen Elementen eine häufige Erscheinung. Die charakteristischen Pegmatite einer jeden Provinz spiegeln eine typische strukturelle Kontrolle, eine bestimmte magmatische Verwandtschaft, sowie Mineralogie und ökonomisches Potential wider.

In der Superior Provinz findet man entlang tiefreichender Störungen in Grünsteingürteln, jeweils an den Grenzen von Subprovinzen und in metasedimentären Trögen, tonerdenreiche Granite und dazugehörige Pegmatite mit einem Alter von 2700-2550 Mio a. Oft ist der Grad der Fraktionierung und eine Anreicherung in Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn> Ti, Ta> Nb, Mn> Fe, B, P, F hoch. Pollucit und das Niedrigdruck Li-Aluminiumsilikat Petalit sind recht häufig. Als mögliche Ausgangsgesteine der Stamm-Magmen der Granite in dieser Region kommen einmal metatonalitisches Basement und Kiele von Grünsteingürteln in Frage. Die mit seltenen Erden angereicherten Pegmatite, die U, Th oder Mo führen, spielen eine untergeordnete Rolle und werden auf juvenile und S-Typ Granite zurückgeführt.

In der Slave Provinz sind die Granite (2600-2400 Mio a) in Abfolgen von Vulkaniten und Sedimentgesteinen entlang der Grenzen von Plutonitkörpern oder Querfaltungsachsen oberhalb von reaktivierten Basementstörungen zu finden. Typisch sind Hochdruck-Pegmatite, die Spodumen führen und in Li, Rb, Be, Ta≷Nb angereichert, aber arm an Cs, Mn, Sn, Ti, B, F sind. Der Aufschmelzvorgang begann wahrscheinlich an der Grenze von Basement zu der Abfolge der Metavulkanite und Metasedimente während der Reaktivierung der Basementstörungen.

In der Churchill Provinz liegen die Pegmatite (1800-1700 Mio a) verteilt in Grünsteingürteln und metasedimentären Faltengürteln in einer Vielfalt tektonischer Baustile vor. Am häufigsten sind Pegmatite, die Be und Nb>Ta führen, eine Anreicherung in Li, Rb und Cs ist dagegen selten. Die Lithologie der Ausgangsgesteine verschiedener Granite und Pegmatite beinhaltet aufgearbeitetes archaisches Basement, Sedimentgesteine, juvenile Kruste des Aphebiums oder intraozeanische Ablagerungen.

Die meisten Pegmatite der Grenville Provinz (1100-900 Mio a) werden mit syntektonischen Syeniten und anorogenen Graniten in Verbindung gebracht, die entlang junger Riftsysteme gebildet wurden. Tonerdenreiche bis subalkalische Granite und Pegmatite enthalten U, Th, Nb, Y, REE und F, während Be untergeordnet und Li extrem selten vorkommt. Wahrscheinlich ist eine Herleitung der Pegmatite von verarmten unteren Krustenbereichen, allerdings scheint ein Teil in der Klassifikation zwischen einem Muskovit-Typ und einem Typ mit Anreicherung von sonst seltenen Elementen zu liegen.

Unterschiede in Alter, Krustenkomponenten und Entwicklung der Provinzen finden sich in der tektonomagmatischen Herleitung und der Petrologie der Granit-Pegmatit-Systeme wieder. Die Geochemie, Zusammensetzung der Phasen und Mineralisierung der Pegmatite werden von den Quellen und der Entwicklung während des Aufstiegs der Schmelzen kontrolliert.

Résumé

Des pegmatites à éléments rares sont répandues dans quatre provinces du bouclier canadien. Dans chacune de ces provinces, ces pegmatites présentent une relation spécifique avec la structure, une filiation magmatique, une minéralogie et un protentiel économique caractéristiques.

Dans la province du Supérieur, des granites peralumineux et leurs pegmatites associées, datés de 2,7 à 2,55 Ga, se rencontrent le long de failles profondes dans des ceintures de roches vertes, à la limite entre sous-provinces et dans des fossés métasédimentaires. En de nombreux endroits, il existe un degré élevé de fractionnement avec enrichissement en Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn>Ti, Ta>Nb, Mn>Fe, B, P, F. La pollucite et la pétalite (alumino-silicate de Li de basse pression) sont relativement communs. Dans cette province polycyclique, le protolithe des granites fertiles peut être représenté par le socle métatonalitique et les racines des ceintures de roches vertes. Des pegmatites à terres rares, contenant U, Th ou Mo existent en quantités subordonnées, en relation avec des granites juvénils et de type S.

Dans la province de l'Esclave, les granites, datés de 2,6 à 2,4 Ga se sont mis en place dans des séries volcano-sédimentaires le long de marges batholitiques ou d'axes de plis transverses, au-dessus de failles du socle réactivées. Les pegmatites sont typiquement des pegmatites de haute pression à spodumène, enrichies en Li, Rb, Be, Ta≷Nb et pauvres en Cs, Mn, Su, Ti, B, F. Les magmas fertiles ont probablement été engendrés le long du contact entre le socle et la série volcano-sédimentaire, à l'occasion de la réactivation de failles du socle.

Dans la province de Churchill, les champs de pegmatites (1,8 à 1,7 Ga) sont répartis dans les ceintures de roches vertes et dans des ensembles plissés métasédimentaires à styles tectoniques variés. Les pegmatites à Be et Nb>Ta sont les plus fréquentes; les enrichissements en Li, Rb, Cs sont rares. Les sources qui ont engendré les diverses séries granito-pegmatitiques comprennent le socle archéen remanié, les sédiments dérivés, la croûte aphébienne juvénile ou des dépôts océaniques.

Dans la province de Grenville, la plupart des pegmatites (1,1 à 0,9 Ga) sont en relation avec des syénites syntectoniques et des granites principalement anorogéniques mis en place le long de rifts naissants. Les granites, peralumineux à subalcalins et les pegmatites portent une minéralisation en U, Th, Nb, Y, terres rares et F; le Be est subordonné et le Li extrêmement rare. Dans la plupart des cas, il semble que ces produits soient dérivés de la croûte inférieure appauvrie, mais une partie des pegmatites semble correspondre à une transition entre les types à muscovite et à éléments rares.

Les différences d'âge, de composants crustaux et d'évolution qui existent entre les différentes provinces se reflètent dans la filiation tectonomagmatique et la pétrologie de leurs systèmes granito-pegmatitiques. Les sources, l'évolution et la mise en place des magmas fertiles déterminent la géochimie, la nature des phases, la minéralisation et l'importance économique des pegmatites.

Краткое содержание

В 4-х провинциях канадс кого щита часто встре чаются пегматиты, обогащенн ые редкими Элементам и. Зти имеют типичную дл я каждой провинции структуру, магматиче ское родство, минерал огический состав и экономическ ое значение. В провинции Superior находят граниты, богатые глин оземом и связанные пегматит ы с возрастом в 2799–2550 миллионов лет, вдол ь глубинных разломов в зеленокаменных поя сах, на границах субпр овинций и в метаседиментньх т рогах. Часто отмечает ся высокая степень фракциониро вания и обогащение сл едующими элементами: Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn > Т, Та > Nb, Mn > Fe, B, P, F. Поллюцит и литиевы й алюмосиликат, петалит, образовавши йся при низких давлен иях, встречается особенн о часто. Возможными ис ходными породами материнску х гранитов этого реги она можно предполагать метато налитный фундамент и корни зеленокаменных поясов. Пегматиты, обо гащенные редкими землями и ураном, тори ем или молибденом, играют второстепенн ую роль и их происхожд ение связывают с ювенильн ыми гранитами, а также гранитами типа S. В провинции Slave находят граниты (возраст 2600-2400 миллионов лет) в сери ях вулканитов и осадо чных пород вдоль границ пл утоновых тел, или осей поперечных складок, о бразовавшихся при реактивировании разломов фундамента. Здесь типичными оказ ываются пегматиты со сподуме ном, образующеся при высоких давления х, и обогащенные Li, Rb, Be, Та ≷ Nb, но с пониженными Cs, Mn, Sn, Т, В, и F. Расплавление происходило, по всей в ероятности, на границ е фундамента и метавул канитов и метаседиме нтов во время реактивирован ия разломов фундамен та. В провинции Churchill пегмати ты (1899-1700 миллионов лет) распределены в зе ленокаменных поясах и в метаседиментах скл адчатых поясов в разл ичных структурных обстано вках. Чаще всего наход ят пегматиты, содержащие бериллий и ниобий>тантал; обога щение литием, рубидием и цез ием наблюдается редк о. Переработанный архе йский фундамент, прои зводные осадочные породы, юве нилчная кора афебия, и океанские отложения являются и сточниками материнс кой магмы гранито-пегмат итовых свит. Большинство пегмати тов провинции Grenville (1100-900 миллионов лет) связы вают с синтектоничес кими сиенитами и гранитам и посторогенного происхождения, котор ые образовались вдол ь зарождающихся рифтов. Граниты и пегм атиты, богатые глиноземом до субалк алического состояни я, содержат U, Th, Nb, Y, REE и F; бериллий в них иг рает второстепенную роль, а литий встречае тся чрезвычайно редк о. Большинство гранито в и пегматитов являют ся производными охужденной нижней ко ры, но некоторые поля пегматитов кажу тся промежуточными м ежду мусковитовой и редко метальной формациям и. Тектономагматическ ое производство и пет рология гранит-пегматитовых свит ображают разноо бразие возраста, компоненто в коры и эволюции отде льных провинций. Геохимиче ские особенности, сос тав фаз и минерализация пегма титов, как и степень их экономической ценности, контролиру ется составом исходн ых пород, внутренней эво люцией и условиями вн едрения материнских расплав ов.

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© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petr Černý
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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