Advertisement

Computers and the Humanities

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 73–83 | Cite as

Electronically generated records and twentieth century history

  • Ronald W. Zweig
Article

Abstract

The electronic generation of documents in modern offices will trasform the nature of archives, and also the techniques of historical research. Although considerable attention has been directed to developing research methodologies for social and economic history using computerized numeric data, almost no attention has been paid to the impact of machine readable textual records on historical writing. This article considers the advantages and disadvantages for the historian of the shift from paper records to electronic documents, and suggests a number of approaches to historical research made possible by the new technology.

Key Words

archives electronic records electronic office systems historical research hypertext HYTIME linked documents ODA SGML tagging TEI textual records textual analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American National Standards Institute.Information Processing-Text and Office Systems — Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) ISO 8879–1986 (E). New York, October 15, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. Bearman, David.Management of Electronic Records: Issues and Guidelines. New York: United Nations, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. Cook, Michael. “Archives and Manuscripts Control: A MARC Format for Use with a Co-operative Online Database. An Interim Report to the British Library.”British Library R&D Report 5945. London, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. Cook, Terry. “Easy to Byte, Harder to Chew: The Second Generation of Electronic Records Archives” (Review article).Archivaria, 33 (1991–1992), 202–16.Google Scholar
  5. Coombs, James H., Allen H. Renear, and Steven J. DeRose. “Markup Systems and the Future of Scholarly Text Processing.”Communications of the ACM, 30, 11 (1987), 933–47.Google Scholar
  6. Evans, Frank B. “Records and Administrative Processes: Retrospect and Prospects.”Management of Recorded Information. Converging Disciplines. Proceedings of the International Council on Archives' Symposium on Current Records. Ed. Cynthia J. Durance. München: K.G. Saur, 1990, pp. 27–35.Google Scholar
  7. Gavrel, Katherine.Conceptual Problems Posed by Electronic Records: A RAMP Study. UNESCO (PGI-90/WS/12): Paris, 1990.Google Scholar
  8. Goldfarb, Charles F.The SGML Handbook. Oxford, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. Greenstein, Daniel, ed.Modelling Historical Data: Towards a Standard for Encoding and Exchanging Machine-Readable Texts. St. Katherine: Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte, 1991.Google Scholar
  10. Hedstrom, Margaret. “Understanding Electronic Incunabla: A Framework for Research on Electronic Records.”American Archivist, 54 (Summer, 1991), 334–54.Google Scholar
  11. Horak, W. “Office Document Architecture and Office Document Interchange Formats: Current Status of International Standardization.”Computer (October 1985), 50–60.Google Scholar
  12. Kipp, Neill, Victoria T. Newcomb, and Steven Newcomb. “The HyTime Hypermedia/Time-based Document Structuring Language.”Communications of the ACM, 34, 11 (1991).Google Scholar
  13. McDonald, John. “Data and Document Interchange Standards and the National Archives.”Report prepared for the National Archives of Canada. Ottawa, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. McDonald, John. “Data and Document Interchange Standards. A View from the National Archives of Canada.” Paper presented to Society of American Archivists. New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  15. McDonald, John. “The Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS) and the National Archives of Canada.” Paper presented to the Society of American Archivists. St. Louis, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. Menne-Haritz, Angelika. “The Impact of Convergence on the Life Cycle of Records.” InManagement of Recorded Information. Converging Disciplines. Proceedings of the International Council on Archives' Symposium on Current Records. Ed. Cynthia J. Durance. München: K.G. Saur, 1990, pp. 121–30.Google Scholar
  17. Michelson, Avra, and Jeff Rothenberg. “Scholarly Communication and Information Technology: Exploring the Impact of Changes in the Research Process on Archives.”American Archivist. (Forthcoming.)Google Scholar
  18. Michelson, Avra. “Expert Systems Technology and Its Implications for Archives.”National Archives Technical Information Paper, No. 9. March 1991.Google Scholar
  19. National Academy of Public Administration.The Effects of Electronic Recordkeeping on the Historical Records of the U.S. Government. Report Prepared for the National Archives and Records Administration. Washington, DC: NAPA, 1989.Google Scholar
  20. National Academy of Public Administration.The Effects of Electronic Recordkeeping on the Historical Records of the U.S. Government. Technical Appendices. Washington, DC: NAPA, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. National Archives and Records Administration. “A National Archives Strategy for the Development and Implementation of Standards for the Creation, Transfer, Access, and Long-Term Storage of Electronic Records of the Federal Government.”National Archives Technical Information Paper, No. 8. Washington, DC, June 1990.Google Scholar
  22. National Archives of Canada. “Managing Information in Office Automation Systems. Final Report on the FOREMOST Project.” Ottawa, 1990.Google Scholar
  23. National Archives of Canada. “Situation Report on the Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS).” March 1989.Google Scholar
  24. National Archives of Canada. “The Application of ODA/ODIF Standards.” Ottawa, 1988.Google Scholar
  25. National Archives of Canada and Dept. of Communications (Canadian Workplace Automation Research Centre).The IMOSA Project: Information Management and Office Systems Advancement, Phase I Report. 1991.Google Scholar
  26. National Historical Publications and Records Commission. “Electronic Records Issues: A Report to the Commission.”Commission Reports and Papers, No. 4, March 1990.Google Scholar
  27. Newcomb, S., N. A. Kipp, and V. T. Newcomb. “The ‘HyTime’ Hypermedia/Time-based Document Structuring Language.”Communications of the ACM, 34, 11 (1991), 67–83.Google Scholar
  28. Sperberg-McQueen, C. M., and L. Burnard, eds.Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine-Readable Texts, Draft 1. Chicago and Oxford, 1990.Google Scholar
  29. Taylor-Munro, Douglas. “Acquiring Electronic Records of the Trade Negotiations Office.”Bulletin of the National Archives of Canada (1991), 1–2.Google Scholar
  30. Thaller, Manfred. “The Need for Standards: Data Modelling and Exchange.” InModelling Historical Data: Towards a Standard for Encoding and Exchanging Machine-Readable Texts. Ed. Daniel Greenstein. St. Katherine: Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte, 1991, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  31. Thibodeau, Kenneth. “Information Resources Management in Context and Contest.”Management of Recorded Information. Converging Disciplines. Proceedings of the International Council on Archive's Symposium on Current Records. Ed. Cynthia J. Durance. München: K.G. Saur, 1990, pp. 191–200.Google Scholar
  32. Walne, Peter, ed.Selected Guidelines for the Management of Records and Archives: A RAMP Reader. Paris: UNESCO, 1990.Google Scholar
  33. Weissman, Robert E. F. “Virtual Documents on an Electronic Desktop: Hypermedia, Emerging Computing Environments and the Future of Information Management.” InManagement of Recorded Information. Converging Disciplines. Proceedings of the International Council on Archives' Symposium on Current Records. Ed. Cynthia J. Dale. München: K.G. Saur, 1990, pp. 37–57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald W. Zweig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Jewish HistoryTel Aviv UniversityRamat AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations