Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 958–977 | Cite as

Sedimentology and genesis of the Cenozoic sediments of northwestern Himalayas (India)

  • R. S. Chaudhri
Aufsätze

Abstract

The paper discusses at length the provenance and the environments of sedimentation of the Cenozoic sediments exposed in the northwestern sector of the Himalayas. The results are based on detailed sedimentological (including mineralogical, petrographical and petrochemical) investigations of more than 3,000 representative samples.

It is concluded that the detritus of the Cenozoic formations was derived mainly from metamorphosed rocks exposed in the adjacent Himalayan regions. A comparatively smaller proportion of the sediments was contributed by acid plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

The detritus of the oldest unit of the Cenozoic sequence was deposited in shallow marine waters. The remaining formations represent the accumulations of nonmarine environments fluctuating in space and time.

Keywords

Sedimentation Representative Sample Small Proportion Sedimentary Rock Detritus 

Zusammenfassung

Herkunft und Sedimentationsraum der im Nordwestabschnitt des Himalaya anstehenden känozoischen Sedimente werden ausführlich dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse beruhen auf detaillierten sedimentologischen, einschlie\lich mineralogischen, petrographischen und petrochemischen Untersuchungen von mehr als 3000 repräsentativen Proben.

Es wird gefolgert, da\ der Detritus der känozoischen Schichtglieder hauptsächlich von metamorphen, in den angrenzenden Himalaya-Gebieten anstehenden Gesteinen stammt.

Der Detritus der ältesten Einheit der känozoischen Folge wurde in marinen Flachwassern abgelagert. Die übrigen Schichten stellen Anhäufungen räumlich und zeitlich schwankender, nicht-mariner Ablagerungsräume dar.

Résumé

La provenance des sédiments cénozoÏques et le domaine de sédimentation du secteur nord-ouest de l'Himalaya sont décrits en détail. Les résultats reposent sur des recherches sédimentologiques, à la fois minéralogiques, pétrographiques et pétrochimiques, de plus de 3000 échantillons représentatifs. Les résultats montrent que les détritiques proviennent principalement de roches métamorphiques affleurant dans les régions de l'Himalaya situées en bordure. Les détritiques de l'unité la plusancienne de la série cénozoÏque se sont déposés dans des eaux marines peu profondes. Les autres couches sont des dépÔts dans des bassins non marins, variant dans le temps et l'espace.

кРАткОЕ сОДЕРжАНИЕ

пОДРОБНО ОпИсАНы пРО ИсхОжДЕНИЕ И ОБлАсть сЕДИМЕНтАцИИ кАИНОж ОИскИх ОсАДОЧНых пОРОД сЕВЕ РО-жАпАДНОгО РАИОНА г ИМАлАЕВ. РЕжУльтАты ОсНОВАНы НА ДЕтАльНых сЕДИМЕН тОлОгИЧЕскИх, МИНЕРА лОгИЧЕскИх, пЕтРОгРАФИЧЕскИх И пЕтРОхИМИЧЕскИх Исс лЕДОВАНИь БОлЕЕ ЧЕМ 3000 пРОБ. сДЕлАН ВыВОД, ЧтО ДЕтР ИтНыИ МАтЕРИАл кАИНО жОИскИх слОЕВ пРОИсхОДИт гл. ОБР. Иж МАтЕМОРФНых пОРОД ОБлАстЕИ, пРИМы кАУЩИх к гИМАлАьМ. ДЕтРИтОВыИ МАтЕРИАл ДРЕВНЕИшИх кАИНОжОИ скИх пОРОД ОтлАгАлсь В РАИОНЕ пРИБРЕжНых жОН. ОстАл ьНыЕ ОтлОжЕНИь пРЕДс тАВлЕНы пОРОДАМИ НЕ-МОРскОгО пРОИсхОжДЕНИь. кРАткОЕ сОДЕРжАНИЕ пОДРОБНО ОпИсАНы пРО ИсхОжДЕНИЕ И ОБлАсть сЕДИМЕНтАцИИ кАИНОж ОИскИх ОсАДОЧНых пОРОД сЕВЕ РО-жАпАДНОгО РАИОНА г ИМАлАЕВ. РЕжУльтАты ОсНОВАНы НА ДЕтАльНых сЕДИМЕН тОлОгИЧЕскИх, МИНЕРА лОгИЧЕскИх, пЕтРОгРАФИЧЕскИх И пЕтРОхИМИЧЕскИх Исс лЕДОВАНИь БОлЕЕ ЧЕМ 3000 пРОБ. сДЕлАН ВыВОД, ЧтО ДЕтР ИтНыИ МАтЕРИАл кАИНО жОИскИх слОЕВ пРОИсхОДИт гл. ОБР. Иж МАтЕМОРФНых пОРОД ОБлАстЕИ, пРИМы кАУЩИх к гИМАлАьМ. ДЕтРИтОВыИ МАтЕРИАл ДРЕВНЕИшИх кАИНОжОИ скИх пОРОД ОтлАгАлсь В РАИОНЕ пРИБРЕжНых жОН. ОстАл ьНыЕ ОтлОжЕНИь пРЕДс тАВлЕНы пОРОДАМИ НЕ-МОРскОгО пРОИсхОжДЕНИь.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Auden, J. B.: Geology of the Krol belt. - Rec. Geol. Surv. India,67 (4), 357–454, 1934.Google Scholar
  2. Babu, S. K., &Dehadrai, P. V.: Petrological investigations of the rocks of Mohand near Dehra Dun. - Curr. Sci.,27 (5), 168–170, 1958.Google Scholar
  3. Bhandari, L. L., &Agarwal, G. C.: Eocene (Subathu Series) of the Himalayan foot hills of North India. - Pub. Ctr. Adv. Stdy. Geol.,3, 57–78, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. Bhatia, S. B., &Mathur, N. S.: On the occurrence of pulmonate gastropods in the Subathu-Dagshai passage beds near Dharampur, Simla Hills. - Bull. Geol. Soc. India,2, 33–36, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya, N.: Clay mineralogy and trace element geochemistry of Subathu, Dharamsala and Siwalik sediments in Himalayan foothills of northwest India. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,11, 309–332, 1970.Google Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya, N., &Raiverman, V.: Clay mineral distribution of Dharamsala sediments in northwest India. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,14 (1), 71–78, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Bhushan, B.: On the Upper Murree-Lower Siwalik provenance. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,14 (2), 186–189, 1973.Google Scholar
  8. Blatt, H.: Original characteristics of clastic quartz grains. - Jour. Sed. Pet.,37, 401–424, 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Blatt, H., &Christie, J. M.: Undulatory extinction in quartz of igneous and metamorphic rocks and its significance in provenance studies of sedimentary rocks. - Jour. Sed. Pet.,33, 559–579, 1963.Google Scholar
  10. Boggs, Jr.,S.: Experimental study of rock fragments. - Jour. Sed. Pet.,38, 1326–1339, 1968.Google Scholar
  11. Bokman, J.: Clastic quartz particles as indices of provenance. - Jour. Sed. Pet.,22, 17–24, 1952.Google Scholar
  12. Cameron, K. L., &Blatt, H.: Durability of sand sized schist and volcanic rock fragments during fluvial transport, Elk Creek Black Hills, South Dakota. - Jour. Sed. Pet.,41, 565–576, 1971.Google Scholar
  13. Chaudri, R. S.: Geology of the Lower Tertiary rocks of Simla Hills. - Doctorate thesis, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 1966 a.Google Scholar
  14. —: Complexometric determination of iron in the Dagshai rocks. - Indian Mineralogist,7, 71–73, 1966 b.Google Scholar
  15. —: Stratigraphy of the Lower Tertiary Formations of Panjab Himalayas. - Geol. Mag., London,105, 421–430, 1968.Google Scholar
  16. —: Some leaf impressions from the Kasauli Series of the Simla Hills. - Curr. Sci.,38, 95–97, 1969 a.Google Scholar
  17. —: Environments of deposition of the Lower Tertiary rocks of Panjab Himalayas. - Vasundhra,5, 71–77, 1969 b.Google Scholar
  18. —: Provenance of the Lower Tertiary sediments of northwestern Himalayas. - Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc.,2, 51–56, 1969 c.Google Scholar
  19. —: Metasediments of Kasauli Series and kinematic metamorphism. - Jour. Ind. Geosci. Assoc.,10, 59–62, 1969 d.Google Scholar
  20. —: Sedimentology of the Lower Tertiary rocks of Panjab Himalayas. - Res. Bull. Pb. Univ. N. S.,20, 229–238, 1969 e.Google Scholar
  21. -: Sedimentary structures from the Lower Tertiary rocks of Panjab Himalayas. - Proc. 57th Ind. Sci. Congr., 207, 1970 a.Google Scholar
  22. —: Heavy minerals from the Himalayan Lower Tertiary sediments. - Ind. Mineralogist,11, 47–54, 1970 b.Google Scholar
  23. —: Petrology of the Siwalik Formation of northwestern Himalayas. - Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc.,3, 19–25, 1970 c.Google Scholar
  24. —: Nahan — a problematic horizon of northwestern Himalayas. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,12 (4), 373–377, 1971 a.Google Scholar
  25. —: Petrogenesis of Cenozoic sediments of northwestern Himalayas. - Geol. Mag., London,108, 43–48, 1971 b.Google Scholar
  26. —: Petrology of the Lower Tertiary Formations of northwestern Himalayas. - Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc.,4, 45–53, 1971 c.Google Scholar
  27. —: Heavy minerals from the Siwalik Formations of the northwestern Himalayas. - Sed. Geol. (Netherlands),8, 77–82, 1972 a.Google Scholar
  28. —: Development in sediments of northwestern Himalayas. - Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc.,5, 23–32, 1972 b.Google Scholar
  29. —: Petrogenesis of the Siwalik sediments of northwestern Himalayas. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,13 (4), 399–402, 1972 c.Google Scholar
  30. —: Tertiary sediments of northwest Himalayas — a critique. - Res. Bull. Pb. Univ. N. S.,23, 83–90, 1972 d.Google Scholar
  31. Chandhri, R. S.: The problematic stratigraphical aspects of the Cenozoic sediments of northwestern Himalayas — a critique. - Proc. 5th Sem. Wadia Inst. Him. Geol., 1974.Google Scholar
  32. -: Paleocene-Eocene sequence of northwestern Himalayas — a product of rhythmic sedimentation. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,16, 1975.Google Scholar
  33. Clark, J.: Field interpretation of red beds. - Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer.,73, 423–438, 1962.Google Scholar
  34. Cummins, W. A.: Graywacke in Lower Siwaliks, Simla Hills. - Nature,196, 1085, 1962.Google Scholar
  35. Dapples, E. C.: Stages of diagenesis in the development of sandstones. - Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer.,73, 913–934, 1962.Google Scholar
  36. Dapples, E. C., Krumbein, W. C., &Sloss, L. L.: Petrographic and lithologic attributes of sandstones. - Jour. Geol.,61, 291–317, 1953.Google Scholar
  37. Dass, B. K., &Vanshnarayan: Nahan sandstones and its exfoliation, Nainital Distt., U.P., India. - Geol. Mag.,108 (3), 229–234, 1971.Google Scholar
  38. Datta, A. K.: Some observations on the sedimentological and paleontological aspects of the Subathu and Lower Dharamsala sediments in the Simla Hills area and their bearing on the tectonic evolution of the foothill belt. - Proc. 4th Sem. Him. Geol., Pub. Ctr. Adv. Stdy. Geol.,7, 23–30, 1970.Google Scholar
  39. Dayal, R., &Chaudhri, R. S.: Dicotyledonous leaf impressions from the Nahan Beds, northwest Himalayas. - Curr. Sci.,36, 181–182, 1967.Google Scholar
  40. Feistmantel, O.: Note on the remains of Palm leaves from the Tertiary Muree and Kasauli Beds in India. - Rec. Geol. Surv. India,15, 51–53, 1882.Google Scholar
  41. Fuchs, G.: The Geological History of the Himalayas. - Proc. 23rd Int. Geol. Congr., 161–174, 1968.Google Scholar
  42. Ganju, P. N., &Srivastava, V. K.: Petrology of Dagshai sandstones near Barog (Simla Hills). - Mahadevan Commemoration Volume, 138– 147, 1961.Google Scholar
  43. —: Occurrence of graywacke in the Lower Siwaliks, Simla Hills. - Nature,194, 566–567, 1962.Google Scholar
  44. Gansser, A.: Geology of the Himalayas. - London (Interscience Pub. Co.) 1964.Google Scholar
  45. Hayden, H. H.: In:Burrard, S. G., &Hayden, H. H., A Sketch of the Geography and Geology of the Himalayan Mountains & Tibet. - Calcutta (Govt. India Publ.) 1933.Google Scholar
  46. Heinrich, E. Wm.: Microscopic Petrography. - New York (McGraw Hill) 1956.Google Scholar
  47. Keller, W. D., &Littlefield, R. F.: Inclusions in the quartz of igneous and metamorphic rocks. - Jour. Sed. Pet.,20, 74–84, 1950.Google Scholar
  48. Kharkwal, A. D.: Occurrence of coquinite in the Subathu Beds. - Curr. Sci.,33, 750, 1964.Google Scholar
  49. —: Glauconite in the Subathu Beds (Eocene) of the Simla Hills of India. - Nature,211, 615–616, 1966.Google Scholar
  50. —: Petrological study of the Upper Siwalik near Chandigarh. - Indian Mineralogist,10, 210–221, 1969.Google Scholar
  51. Kopeliovich, A. V.,Kossovskaya, A. G., &Shutov, V. D.: On some aspects of the epigenesis of the terrigenous deposits of platform and geosynclinal regions. - Izv. AN SSSR, Ser. Geol.,6, 1961.Google Scholar
  52. Krishnan, M. S.: The structure and tectonic history of India. - Mem. Geol. Surv. India,81, 1953.Google Scholar
  53. —: Geology of India & Burma. - 5th Ed., Madras (Higginbothams) 1968.Google Scholar
  54. Krishnaswamy, V. S., &Swaminath, J.: Himalayan & Alpine Geology — a review. - D. N. Wadia Comm. Volume, 171–192, 1965.Google Scholar
  55. Krynine, P. D.: Petrography and genesis of the Siwalik Series. - Amer. Jour. Sci.,34, 422–446, 1937.Google Scholar
  56. —: Petrology and genesis of the Third Bradford Sand. - The Penn. State College Mineral Industries Expt. Sta. Bull.29, 134, 1940.Google Scholar
  57. —: The origin of red beds. - Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci.,11, 60–67, 1949.Google Scholar
  58. Mackie, W.: The sands & sandstones of eastern Moray. - Edinburgh Geol. Soc. Trans.,7, 148–172, 1896.Google Scholar
  59. Mahandroo, M. P. S.: Geology of the Lower Tertiary rocks of Mandi-Sarkaghat-Sundernagar region (N.W. Himalayas). - Doctorate thesis, Pb. Univ., Chandigarh 1972.Google Scholar
  60. McMahon, C. A.: On the microscopic structure of some sub-Himalayan rocks of Tertiary age. - Rec. Geol. Surv. India,16 (4), 1883.Google Scholar
  61. Medlicott, H. B.: On the geological structure and relations of the southern portion of the Himalayan range between the rivers Ganges and Ravee. - Mem. Geol. Surv. India,3 (2), 1–206, 1864.Google Scholar
  62. Mehdiratta, R. C.: Indications of glaciation in the Siwalik System in India. - Nature,184, 833–834, 1959.Google Scholar
  63. Misra, R. C., &Valdiya, K. S.: Petrography and sedimentation of the Siwaliks of the Tanakpur area, Distt. Nainital, U. P., India. - Indian Mineralogist,2, 7–35, 1961.Google Scholar
  64. Norin, E.: Geological explorations in the western Tibet, the Sino-Swedish Expedition. - Min. Geol. und. Pal. Publ.,29 (III), Geology,7, Stockholm, 1–198, 1946.Google Scholar
  65. Oldham, R. D.: A Manual of Geology of India. - Govt. of India Publication, 2nd Ed., Calcutta 1893.Google Scholar
  66. Packham, G. H.: Sedimentary structures as an important feature in the classification of sandstones. - Amer. Jour. Sci.,252, 466–476, 1954.Google Scholar
  67. Pande, I. C.: Palaeotectonic evolution of the Himalaya. - Pub. Ctr. Adv. Stdy. Geol.,3, 107–116, 1966.Google Scholar
  68. -: Recent advances in Himalayan Geology. - Presidential Address, 62nd Session Ind. Sci. Congr. Geog. Geol. Section, 1–52, 1975.Google Scholar
  69. Pascoe, E. H.: A Manual of Geology of India. - New Delhi, III (Govt of India Publication) 1964.Google Scholar
  70. Pettijohn, F. J.: Sedimentary Rocks. - Calcutta (Oxford Book Co.) 1957.Google Scholar
  71. Pilgrim, G. E.: Suggestions concerning the history of the drainage of northern India. - Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal N. S.,15, 81–99, 1919.Google Scholar
  72. Poldervaart, A.: Zircons in rocks, Pt. I sedimentary rocks. - Amer. Jour. Sci.,253, 433–461, 1955.Google Scholar
  73. Raiverman, V.: Clay sedimentation in Subathu-Dharamsala Group of rocks in the foot hills of northwestern Himalayas. - Bull. O.N.G.C.,1, 27–33, 1964.Google Scholar
  74. —: Petrography of the Tertiary sediments of Sarkaghat anticline in the Himalayan foot hills of Himachal Pradesh.- Pub. Ctr. Adv. Stdy. Geol.,5, 39–52, 1968.Google Scholar
  75. Raiverman, V., &Seshavataram, B. T. V.: On mode of deposition of Subathu and Dharamsala sediments in the Himalayan foot hills in Punjab & Himachal Pradesh. - D. N. Wadia Comm. Volume, 556–571, 1965.Google Scholar
  76. Raju, A. T. R.: Observations on the petrography of Tertiary clastic sediments of the Himalayan foot hills of north India. - Bull. O.N.G.C.,4, 5–15, 1967.Google Scholar
  77. Raju, A. T. R., &Dehadrai, P. V.: Note on heavy mineral classification of Siwaliks from Jammu and Punjab (India). - Curr. Sci.,31, 378, 1962 a.Google Scholar
  78. —: Clastic deposition of Siwalik sediments. - Curr. Sci.,31, 494–495. 1962 b.Google Scholar
  79. —: Upper Siwalik sedimentation in parts of Punjab. - Quart. Jour. Geol. Min. Met. Soc. India,34, 1–7, 1962 a.Google Scholar
  80. Ronov, A. B., Migdisov, A. A., &Barskaya, N. V.: Tectonic cycles and regularities in the development of sedimentary rocks and paleogeographic environments of sedimentation of the Russian Platform (an approach to a quantitative study). - Sediment.,13, 179–212, 1969.Google Scholar
  81. Ronov, A. B., Mikhaylovskaya, M. S., &Solodkova, I. I.: The evolution of chemical and mineral composition of sandy rocks. - Geochem. Intl.,2 (2), 318–371, 1965.Google Scholar
  82. Sahni, B.: Angiosperm leaf impressions from the Kasauli beds, northwestern Himalayas. - The Palaeobotanist,2, 85–87, 1953.Google Scholar
  83. Sahni, M. R., &Mathur, L. P.: Stratigraphy of the Siwalik Group. - Proc. Intl. Geol. Congr. 22nd Session (India), 1964.Google Scholar
  84. Saxena, M. N.: Geological classification and the tectonic history of the Himalaya. - Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad.,37, 28–54, 1971.Google Scholar
  85. Saxena, M. N., Bhatia, S. B., &Pande, I. C.: The Lower Siwaliks and the graywacke problem. - Res. Bull. Pb. Univ. N. S.,19, 255–259, 1968.Google Scholar
  86. Sikka, D. B., Saxena, M. N., Bhatia, S. B., &Jain, S. P.: Occurrence of graywacke in the Lower Siwaliks, Simla Hills. - Nature,192, 61, 1961.Google Scholar
  87. Sinha, R. N.: Heavy mineral investigations in the Siwaliks of Mohand, Distt. Saharanpur, U. P. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,11, 163–177, 1970.Google Scholar
  88. Sinha, R. N., &Khan, K. N.: Heavy mineral investigations in Nahan Series near Nahan, H. P. - Curr. Sci.,34, 340–342, 1965.Google Scholar
  89. Swaminath, J.: Himalayan orogeny and sedimentary cycles. - Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci.,53, 111–124, 1961.Google Scholar
  90. Tondon, S. K.: Pebble and grain fabric analysis of the Siwalik sediments around Ramnagar, Kumaon Himalayas. - Him. Geol.,1, 59–74, 1971.Google Scholar
  91. —: Mechanical analysis of Middle Siwalik sandstones from Ramnagar, Nainital Distt., Kumaon Himalayas. - Jour. Geol. Soc. India,13 (1), 51–58, 1972 a.Google Scholar
  92. —: Observations on the matrix of Siwalik sediments of a part of Kumaon Himalayas. - Curr. Sci.,41 (5), 192–193, 1972 b.Google Scholar
  93. Wadia, D. N.: The geology of Poonch State (Kashmir) and adjacent portion of the northern Panjab. - Mem. Geol. Surv. India,51 (2), 257–268, 1928.Google Scholar
  94. —: The Tertiary geosyncline of northwest Punjab and the history of Quaternary earth movements and drainage of the Gangetic trough. - Quart. Jour. Geol. Min. Met. Soc. India,4, 69–96, 1932.Google Scholar
  95. Wakhaloo, S. N., &Bhatia, T. R.: The Indobrahm or the Siwalik River. - Pub. Ctr. Adv. Stdy. Geol.,4, 7, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Chaudhri
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Advanced Study in GeologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations