Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 15–21 | Cite as

Tissue polypeptide antigen in tumor cytosol: A new prognostic indicator in primary breast cancer

  • Massimo Gion
  • Riccardo Mione
  • Carlo Gatti
  • Ruggero Dittadi
  • Antonette Leon
  • Cristina Castiglioni
  • Ottorino Nascimben
  • Giuliano Bruscagnin


The assessment of the risk of relapse is a critical need in the management strategy of breast cancer patients. To date, the most reliable prognostic factor is axillary nodal status. Several other pathological and biological parameters are currently under evaluation.

Since 1982 we have been studying the prognostic role of several tumor markers in breast cancer cytosol. Elevated cytosol concentrations of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) have been found to have a highly significant direct correlation with both prolonged relapse-free interval (RFI) and higher survival rate.

The information provided by cytosol TPA was independent of both axillary nodal status and steroid receptor content. In patients with a low risk of relapse (no axillary metastases, estrogen and progesterone receptor positive), cytosol TPA was still a significant prognostic indicator.

Key words

breast cancer cytosol prognosis tissue polypeptide antigen tumor markers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    UKBCTCS/UICC/WHO: Review of mortality results in randomized trials in early breast cancer. Lancet ii: 1205–1206, 1984Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Consensus Conference. JAMA 254: 3461–3463, 1985Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisher ER, Redmond C, Fisher B: Pathologic findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project (Prot No. 4). Discriminants for five-year treatment failure. Cancer 46 (Supplement): 908–918, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davis BW, Gelber RD, Goldhirsch A, Hartmann WH, Locher GW, Reed R, Golouh R, Säve-Söderbergh J, Holloway L, Russell I, Rudenstam CM: Prognostic significance of tumor grade in clinical trials of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases. Cancer 58: 2662–2670, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Editorial: Steroid receptors and prognosis of breast cancer. Lancet i: 887–888, 1984Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark GM, McGuire WL, Hubay CA, Pearson OH, Marshall SS: Progesterone receptors as a prognostic factor in stage II breast cancer. New Engl J Med 309: 1343–1347, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gentili C, Sanfilippo O, Silvestrini R: Cell proliferation and its relationship to clinical features and relapse in breast cancers. Cancer 48: 974–979, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fallenius AG, Auer GU, Carstensen JM: Prognostic significance of DNA measurements in 409 consecutive breast cancer patients. Cancer 62: 331–341, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sainsbury JRC, Farndon JR, Needham GK, Malcolm AJ, Harris AL: Epidermal-Growth-Factor receptor status as predictor of early recurrence of and death from breast cancer. Lancet i: 1398–1402, 1987Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Slamon DJ, Clark GM, Wong SG, Levin WJ, Ullrich A, McGuire WL: Human breast cancer correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of HER 2/neu oncogene. Science 235: 177–182, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bates SE, Longo DL: Tumor markers: value and limitations in the management of cancer patients. Cancer Treat Rev 12: 163–207, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gion M, Mione R, Dittadi R, Fasan S, Pallini A, Bruscagnin G: Carcinoembryonic antigen, ferritin, and tissue polypeptide antigen in serum and tissue. Relationship with receptor content in breast carcinoma. Cancer 57: 917–922, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gion M, Mione R, Dittadi R, Griggio L, Munegato G, Valsecchi M, Del Maschio O, Bruscagnin G: Carcinoembryonic antigen, ferritin, tissue polypeptide antigen, and CA15/3 in breast cancer. Relationship between carcinoma and normal breast tissue. Int J Biol Markers 1: 33–38, 1986Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bombardieri E, Gion M, Mione R, Dittadi R, Bruscagnin G, Buraggi G: A mucinous-like carcinoma-associated antigen (MCA) in the tissue and blood of patients with primary breast cancer. Cancer 63: 490–495, 1989Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Björklund B: On the nature and clinical use of tissue polypeptide antigen. Tumor Diagnostik 1: 9–20, 1980Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meyer JS, Rao BR, Stevens SC, White WL: Low incidence of estrogen receptor in breast carcinoma with rapid rates of cellular replication. Cancer 40: 2290–2298, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kute TE, Moss HB, Anderson D, Crumb K, Miller B, Burns D, Dube LA: Relationship of steroid receptor, cell kinetics, and clinical status in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Res 41: 3524–3529, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Björklund B, Björklund V, Wiklund B, Lundström R, Ekdahl PH, Hagbard L, Kaijser K, Eklund G, Lüning B: A human tissue polypeptide related to cancer and placenta. I. Preparation and properties. II. Assay technique. III. Clinical studies of 1,483 individuals with cancer and other conditions. In: Björklund B (ed): Immunological Techniques for Detection of Cancer. Bonniers, Stockholm, 1973, pp 133–187Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    U.I.C.C. Classification of Malignant Tumors. Hermaned P, Sobin LH (eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1987Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group: Revision of the standards for the assessment of hormone receptors in human breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 16: 1513–1515, 1980Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bradford M: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantifi-cation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 72: 248–253, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yalow RS, Berson SA: General principles of radioimmu-noassay. In: Hayes RL, Gosswitz FA, Murphy BEP (eds) Radioisotopes in Medicine, In Vitro Studies. Oak Ridge, US Atomic Energy Commission Conference 671111, 1968, pp 22–30Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cox DR: Regression models and life table. J Roy Statist Soc 34: 187–220, 1972Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mantel N: Evaluation of survival data and two new rank order statistics arising in its consideration. Cancer Chemother Rep 50: 163–170, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Henderson IC: Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. New Engl J Med 318: 443–444, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Editorial: Second malignancies from adjuvant chemotherapy? Too soon to tell. J Clin Oncol 8: 1135–1137, 1987Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stenkvist B, Westman-Naeser S, Vegelius J, Holmquist J, Nordin B, Bengtsson E, Eriksonn O: Analysis of reproducibility of subjective grading system for breast carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 32: 979–985, 1987Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Howell A, Barnes DM, Harland RNL, Redford S, Bramwell VH, Wilkinson MJ, Swindell R, Crowther D, Sellwood RA: Steroid-hormone receptors and survival after first relapse in breast cancer. Lancet i: 588–591, 1984Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leivonen MK, Saario IA, Peltokallio P, Tuominen L, Kalima TV: A suggested follow-up time for breast cancer patients. Br J Cancer 54: 837–840, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aamdal S, Bormer O, Jorgensen O, Host H, Eliassen G, Kaalhus O, Pihl A: Estrogen receptors and long-term prognosis in breast cancer. Cancer 53: 2525–2529, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kjellgren K: The prognostic significance of consecutive determinations of serum tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) in human breast cancer. In: Lehmann FG (ed) Carcino Embryonic Proteins. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, pp 607–610Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimo Gion
    • 3
  • Riccardo Mione
    • 3
  • Carlo Gatti
    • 3
  • Ruggero Dittadi
    • 3
  • Antonette Leon
    • 3
  • Cristina Castiglioni
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ottorino Nascimben
    • 2
    • 3
  • Giuliano Bruscagnin
    • 3
  1. 1.2nd Division of SurgeryRegional General HospitalMestreItaly
  2. 2.Oncology CenterRegional General HospitalMestreItaly
  3. 3.Division of Radiotherapy and Nuclear MedicineOncology Center, Regional General HospitalVeniceItaly

Personalised recommendations