Photochemical reactions in interstellar grains photolysis of co, NH3, and H2O

  • V. K. Agarwal
  • W. Schutte
  • J. M. Greenberg
  • J. P. Ferris
  • R. Briggs
  • Steven Connor
  • C. P. E. M. Van de Bult
  • F. Baas
Article

Abstract

A simulation of the organic layer accreted onto interstellar dust particles was prepared by slow deposition of a CO:NH3:H2O gas mixture on an Al block at 10K, with concomitant irradiation with vacuum UV. The residues were analyzed by GC-MS, HPLC, and near IR; a reaction pathway leading from NH3 to complex alcohol, fatty acid, and amide products in 27 stages is postulated. The astronomical relevance and significance of the observations are discussed.

Keywords

Dust Amide Geochemistry Photolysis Organic Layer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. A'Hearn, M. F. and Feldman, P. D.: 1984, in J. Klinger (ed.),Proceedings Workshop on Ices in the Solar System, in press.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken, D. K. and Jones, B.: 1973,Astrophys. J. 184, 127.Google Scholar
  3. Anders, E., Hayatsu, R., and Studier, M. H.: 1973,Science 182, 781.Google Scholar
  4. Anders, E. and Owen, T.: 1977,Science 198, 453.Google Scholar
  5. Bar-Nun, A. and Chang, S.: 1983,J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6662.Google Scholar
  6. Becklin, E. E., Matthews, K., Neugebauer, G., and Willner, S. P.: 1978,Astrophys. J. 220, 831.Google Scholar
  7. Bellamy, L. J.: 1975,The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 5–9.Google Scholar
  8. Butts, W. C.: 1972,Anal. Biochem. 46, 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, M., Hut, P., and Muller, R. A.: 1984,Nature 308, 715.Google Scholar
  10. Delsemme, A. H.: 1982, in L. C. Wilkening (ed.),Comets, Univ. of Arizona Press, p. 85.Google Scholar
  11. Ferris, J. P., Bossard, A., and Khwaja, H.: 1984,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferris, J. P. and Morimoto, J. Y.: 1981,Icarus 48, 118.Google Scholar
  13. Ferris, J. P., Williams, E. A., Nicodem, D. E., Hubbard, J. S., and Voecks, G. E.: 1974,Nature 249, 437.Google Scholar
  14. Gillett, F. C. and Forrest, W. J.: 1973,Astrophys. J. 179, 483.Google Scholar
  15. Greenberg, J. M.: 1984,Scientific Am. 250 (6), 124.Google Scholar
  16. Greenberg, J. M.: 1982a, in D. Phillips and J. E. Beckman (eds.),Submillimetre Wave Astronomy, Cambridge University Press, p. 161.Google Scholar
  17. Greenberg, J. M.: 1982b, in C. Wilkening (ed.),Comets, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, pp. 131–163.Google Scholar
  18. Greenberg, J. M.: 1983, in C.-I. Lagerkvist and H. Rickman (eds.),Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Uppsala Univ. Press, p. 259.Google Scholar
  19. Greenberg, J. M., Van de Bult, C. E. P. M., and Allamandola, L. J.: 1983,J. Phys. Chem. 87, 4243.Google Scholar
  20. Greenberg, J. M., Weber, P., and Schutte, W.: 1985, in M. D. Papagiannis (ed.), ‘The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments’,IAU Symp. 112, 145.Google Scholar
  21. Hagen, W., Allamandola, L. J., and Greenberg, J. M.: 1979,Astrophys. Space Sci. 65, 215.Google Scholar
  22. Hagen, W.: 1982, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Leiden.Google Scholar
  23. Hayatsu, R. and Anders, E.: 1981,Topics in Current Chemistry 99, 1.Google Scholar
  24. Hayatsu, R., Mutsuoka, S., Scott, R. G., Studier, M. H., and Anders, E.: 1977,Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 1325.Google Scholar
  25. Hubbard, J. S., Voecks, G. E., Hobby, G. L., Ferris, J. P., Williams, E. A., and Nicodem, D. E.: 1975,J. Mol. Evol. 5, 223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Huber, K. P. and Herzberg, G.: 1979,Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure IV, Constant of Diatomic Molecules, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, W. E., MacKnight, S. D., and Teng, L.: 1973,Chem. Rev. 73, 407.Google Scholar
  28. Kovats, E.: 1958,Helv. Chim. Acta 41, 1915.Google Scholar
  29. Lawless, J. G. and Yuen, G. U.: 1979,Nature 282, 396.Google Scholar
  30. Milligan, D. E. and Jacox, M. E.: 1965,J. Chem. Phys. 43, 4487.Google Scholar
  31. Morrison, D., Hinners, N., and Naugle, J. (Chairman, Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council): 1983,Planetary Exploration Through Year 2000, NASA, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  32. Murray, T. P., Austin, E. R., Howard, R. G., and Horn, R. C.: 1982,Anal. Chem. 54, 1504.Google Scholar
  33. Okabe, H.: 1978,Photochemistry of Small Molecules, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Peltzer, E. T. and Bada, J. L.: 1978,Nature 272, 443.Google Scholar
  35. Peltzer, E. T., Bada, J. L. Schlesinger, G., and Miller, S. L.: 1984,Adv. Space Res. 12, 69.Google Scholar
  36. Puchert, C. J.: 1981,The Aldrich Library of IR Spectra, edition III, Aldrich Chemical Co.Google Scholar
  37. Roche, P. F. and Aitken, D. K.: 1984,Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 208, 482.Google Scholar
  38. Schoemaker, E. M. and Wolfe, R. F.: 1983,7th College Park Colloquium on Chemical Evolution, p. 14 of Abstracts.Google Scholar
  39. Van de Bult, C. E. P. M. and Greenberg, J. M.: 1984,Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 210, 803.Google Scholar
  40. Van IJzendoorn, L. J., Allamandola, L. J., Baas, F., and Greenberg, J. M.: 1983,J. Chem. Phys. 78, 7019.Google Scholar
  41. Von Sonntagg, C. and Schuchmann, H.-P.: 1977, in J. N. Pitts, Jr., G. S. Hammond, and K. Gollnick (eds.),Advances in Photochem. 10, 59.Google Scholar
  42. Walker, J. C. G.: 1977,Evolution of the Atmosphere, MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Whipple, F.: 1978, in J. A. M. McDonnell, (ed.),Cosmic Dust, Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp. 1–73.Google Scholar
  44. Whipple, F.: 1982, in R. M. West (ed.),Highlights in Astronomy 6, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 323.Google Scholar
  45. Whitmore, D. P. and Jackson, A. A.: 1984,Nature 308, 713.Google Scholar
  46. Wolman, Y., Haverland, W., and Miller, S.: 1972,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 809.Google Scholar
  47. Willner, S. P., Russell, R. W., and Puetter, R. C.: 1979,Astrophys. J. 229, L65Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. K. Agarwal
    • 1
  • W. Schutte
    • 2
  • J. M. Greenberg
    • 2
  • J. P. Ferris
    • 1
  • R. Briggs
    • 3
  • Steven Connor
    • 3
  • C. P. E. M. Van de Bult
    • 2
  • F. Baas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory Astrophysics, Huygens LaboratoryUniversity of LeidenLeidenHolland
  3. 3.Center for Laboratories and ResearchN.Y. State Department of Health, Empire State PlazaAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations